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FROM THE DEATH OF ALEXANDER AND ARISTOBULUS, TO THE

BANISHMENT OF ARCHELAUS.

CHAP. I.

How Antipater was hated by all the nation [of the Jews) for

the slaughter of his brethren ; and how, for that reason he got into peculiar favour with his friends at Rome, by giving then many presents; as he did also with Saturninus, the president of Syria, and the governors who were under him; and concerning Herod's wives and children. § 1. W hen Antipater had thus taken off his brethren, and had brougbt his father into the highest degree of impiety, till he was haunted with furies for what he had done, his hopes did not succeed to his mind, as to the rest of his life; for, although he was delivered from the fear of his brethren being his rivals as to the government, yet did he find it a very hard thing, and almost impracticable, to come at the kingdom, because the batred of the nation against him on that account was become very great : and, besides this very disagreeable circumstance, the affair of the soldiery grieved him still more who were alienated from him, from which yet these kings derived all the safety which they had, whenever they found the nation desirous of innovation : and all this danger was drawn upon him by his destruction of his brethren. However, he governed the nation jointly with his father, being indeed no other than a king already : and he was for that very reason trusted, and the more firmly depended on, for the

VOL. III.

which he ought himself to have been put to death, as appearing to have betrayed his brethren out of his concern for the preservation of Herod, and not rather out of his ill-will to them, and, before them, to his father himself; and this was the accursed state he was in. . Now, all Antipater's contrivances tended to make his way to take off Herod, that he might have nubody to accuse him in the vile practices he was devising; and that Herod might have no refoge, nor any to afford him their assistance, since they must thereby have Antipater for their open enemy; insomuch that the very plots he had laid against his brethren, were occasioned by the hatred he bore his father. But at this time he was more than eyer set upon the execution of his attempts against Herod, because if he were once dead, the government would now be firmly secured to him; but if he were suffered to live any Jonger, he should be in danger upon a discovery of that wickedness of which he had been the contriver, and his father would of necessity then become his enemy. And on this aecount it was that he became very bountiful to his father's friends, and bestowed great sums on several of them, in order to surprise men with his good deeds, and take off their hatred against him. And he sent great presents to his friends at Rome particularly, to gain their good will; and above all the rest to Saturninus, the president of Syria. He also hoped to gain the favour of Saturninus's brother with the large presents he bestowed op him; as also he used the same art to

Salome] the king's sister, who had married one of Herod's chief friends. And, when he counterfeited friendship to those with whom he conversed, he was very subtle in gaining their belief, and very cunning to hide his hatred against any that he really did hate. But he could not impose upon his aunt, who understood him of a long time, and was a woman not easily to be deluded; especially while she had already used all possible caution in preventing his pernicious designs. Although Antipater's uncle by the mother's side, were married to her daughter, and this by his own connivance and management, while she had before been married to Aristobulus, and while Salome's other daughter by that husband were married to the son of Calleas. But that marriage was no obstacle to her, who knew how wicked he was, in her discovering his designs, as her former kindred to him could not prevent her hatred of him. Now Herod had compelled Salome, while she was in love with Sylleus the Arabian, and had taken a. fondness for him, to marry Alexas; which match was by hers submitted to at the instance of Julia, who persuaded Salome not to refuse it, lest she should herself be their open enemy, since Herod kad sworn that he would never be friends with

Salome, if she would not accept of Alexas for her husband;
so she submitted to Julia as being Cæsar's wife, and, besides
that, as she advised her to nothing but what was very much
for ber own advantage. At this time also it was that Herod
sent back king Archelaus's daughter, who had been Alexan-
der's wife, to her father, returning the portion he had with
her out of his own estate, that there might be no dispute be-
tween them about it.

Now Herod brought up his son's children with great care :
for Alexander had two sons by Glaphyra ; and Aristobalus
had three sons by Bernice, Salome's daughter, and two
daughters : and, as his friends were one with him, be pre. *
sented the children before them; and deploring the hard for-
tune of his own sons, he prayed that no such ill fortune might
befal these who were their children, but that they might im-
prove in virtue, and obtain what they justly deserved, and
might make him amends for his care of their education. He
also caused them to be betrothed against they should come to .
the proper age of marriage; the elder of Alexander's sons to
Pheroras's daughter, and Antipater's daughter, to Aristobulus's
eldest son. He also allotted one of Aristobulus's daughters to
Antipater's son, and Aristobulus's other daughter to Herod, a

son of his own, who was born to him by the high priest's maar daughter; for it is the ancient practice among us to have Sun

many wives at the same time. Now the king made these es-
pousals for the children, out of commiseration of them now
they were fatherless, as endeavouring to render Antipater
kind to them by these intermarriages. But Antipater did not
fail to bear the same temper of mind to his brother's children,
which he had borne to his brothers themselves; and his fa-
ther's concern about them provoked his indignation against
them upon this supposal, that they would become greater
than ever his brothers had been ; while Archelaus, a king,
would support his daughter's sons, and Pheroras, a tetrarch,
would accept of one of the daughters as a wife to his son,
.What provoked him also was this, that all the multitude
would so commiserate these fatherless children, and so hate
· him, [for making them fatherless,] that all would come out,
since they were no strangers. to his vile disposition towards
his brethren. He contrived therefore to overturn his father's
settlements, as thinking it a terrible thing that they should be
so related to him, and be so powerful withal. .So Herod
yielded to him, and changed his rosolution at his entreaty ;
and the determination now was, that Antipater himself should
marry Aristobulus's daughter, and Antipater's son should mar.
ry Pheroras's daughter... So the espousals for the marriages
were changed after this manner, even without the king's real
approbation.

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Now * Herod the king had at this time nine wives; one of them Antipater's mother, and anotber the high priest's daughter, by whom he had a son of his own name. He had also one who was his brother's daughter, and another his sister's daughter; which two had no children. One of his wives also was of the Samaritan nation, whose son's were Antipas and Archelaus, and whose daughter was Olympias; which daughter was afterward married to Joseph, the king's brother's son; but Archelaus and Antipas was brought up with a certain private man at Rome. Herod had also to wife Cleopatra of Jerusalem, and by her he had his sons Herod and Philip; which last was also brought up at Rome: Pallas also was one of his wives which bare him his son Phasaelus. And besides these, he had for his wives Phadra and Elpis, by whom he had his daughters Roxana and Salome. As for his elder daughters by the same mother with Alexander and Aristobulus, and whom Pheroras neglected to marry, he gave the one in marriage to Antipater the king's sister's son, and the other to Phasaelus, his brother's son. And this was the posterity of Herod.

CH A P. II.

Concerning Zamaris, the Babylonian Jew. Concerning the

plots laid by Antipater against his father, and somewhat about the Pharisees.

$ 1. AND NÓw it was that Herod being desirous of securing himself on the side of the Trachonites, resolved to build a village, as large as a city, for the Jews, in the middle of that country, which might make his own country difficult to be assaulted, and whence he might be at hand to make sallies upon them, and to do them a mischief. Accordingly, when he understood that there was a man that was a Jew come out of Babylon, with five hundred horsemen, all of whom could shoot their arrows as they rode on horseback, and with an hundred of his relations, had passed over Euphrates, and now abode at Antioch by Daphne of Syria, where Saturninus, who was then president bad given them a place for habitation, called Valatha, he sent for this man, with the multitude that followed him, and promised to give him land in the toparchy called Batanca, which country is bounded with

* Those who have a mind to know all the family and descendants of Antipater the Idumean, and of Herod the Great, his son, and have a memory to preserve them all distinctly, may consult Josephus, Antiq. B. XVIII. ch. v. § 4. vol. II, and of the War, B. I. ch. xxviii. 9 4. vol III. and Noldius in Havercamp's edition, p. 336. and Spanheim, ib. p. 402-405. and Reland, Palestin. Part 1. p. 175, 276.

Trachonites, as desirous to make that his habitation a guard to himself. He also engaged to let him hold the country free from tribute, and that they should dwell entirely without paying such customs as used to be paid, and gave it him tax- . free.

2. The Babylonian was induced by these offers to come hither; so he took possession of the land and built in it fortresses and a village, and named it Bathyra. Whereby this man became a safeguard to the inhabitants against the Trachonites, and preserved those Jews who came out of Babylon, to offer their sacrifices at Jerusalem, from being hurt by the Tra. chonite robberies; so that a great number came to him from all these parts where the ancient Jewish laws were observed, and the country became full of people, by reason of their universal freedom from taxes. This continued during the life of Herod; but when Philip, who was (tetrarch] after bim, took the government, he made them pay some small taxes, and that for a little while only ; and Agrippa the Great, and his son of the same name, although they harrassed them greatly, yet would they not take their liberty away. From whom when the Romans have now taken the government into their own hands, they still gave them the privilege of their freedom, but oppress them entirely with the imposition of taxes. Of which matter I shall treat more accurately in the progress of this history *

3. At length Zamaris, the Babylonian, to whom Herod had given that country for a possession, died; having lived virtuously, and left children of a good character behind him: one of whom was Jacim, who was famous for his valour, and taught his Babylonians how to ride their horses; and a troop of them were guards to the forementioned kings. And when Jacim was dead in his old age, he left a son whose name was Philip, one of great strength in his hands, and in other respects also more eminent for his valour than any of his contemporaries; on which account there was a confidence and firin friendship between him and king Agrippa. He had also an army, which he maintained, as great as that of a king; which he exercised and led wheresoever he had occasion to march.

4. When the affairs of Herod were in the condition I have described, all the public affairs depended upon Antipater; and his power was such, that he could do good turns to as many as he pleased, and this by his father's concession, in hopes of his good will and fidelity to him; and this till he ventured to use his power still farther, because his wicked designs were concealed from his father, and he made him

* This is now wanting.

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