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speak of it to some of those to whom the continuance of tyranny was advantageous; and if Caius should prove to be alive, they might be informed against and punished. And another report went about, that although Caius had been wounded indeed, yet was not be dead, but alive still, and under the physicians' hands. Nor was any one looked upon by another as faithful enough to be trusted, and to whom any one would open his mind; for he was either a friend to Caius, and therefore suspected to favour his tyranny, or he was one that hated him, who therefore might be suspected to deserve the less credit, because of his ill-will to him. Nay, it was said by some, (and this indeed it was that deprived the nobility of their hopes, and made them sad,} that Caius was in a condition to despise the dangers he had been in, and took no care of healing his wounds, but was gotten away into the market-place, and bloody as he was, was making an harangue to the people. And these were the conjectural reports of those that were so unreasonable as to endeavour to raise tumults, which they turned different ways, according to the opinions of the hearers. Yet did they not leave their seats, for fear of being accused, if they should go out before the rest; for they should not be sentenced according to the real intention with which they went out, but according to the supposals of the accusers, and of the judges.

17. But now a multitude of Germans had surrounded the theatre with their swords drawn; all the spectators looked for nothing but death, and at every one's coming in a fear seized upon them, as if they were to be cut in pieces immediately ; and in great distress they were, as neither having courage enough to go out of the theatre, nor believing themselves safe from dangers if they tarried there. And when the Germans came upon them, the cry was so great, that the theatre rang again with the entreaties of the spectators to the soldiers, pleading that they were entirely ignorant of every thing that related to such seditious contrivances, and that if there were already any sedition raised, they knew nothing of it; they therefore begged that they would spare them, and not punish those that had not the least hand in such bold crimes as belonged to other persons, wbile they neglected to search after such as had really done whatsoever it be that hath been done. Thus did these people appeal to God, and deplore their infelicity with shedding of tears, and beating their faces, and said every thing that the most imminent danger, and the utmost concern for their lives could dictate to them. This brake the fury of the soldiers, and made them repent of what they minded to do to the spectators, which would have been the greatest instance of cruelty. And so it appeared to even

those savages, when they had once fixed the heads of those that were slain with Asprenas upon the altar; at which sight the spectators were sorely afflicted, both upon the consideration of the dignity of the persons, and out of a commiseration of their sufferings; nay indeed, they were almost in as great disorder at the prospect of the danger themselves were in, seeing it was still uncertain whether they should entirely escape tbe like calamity. Whence it was, that such as thoroughly and justly hated Caius, could get no way enjoy the pleasure of his death, because they were themselves in jeopardy of perishing together with him; nor had they hitherto any firın assurance of surviving. .

18. There was at this time, one Euaristus Arruntius, a public crier in the market, and therefore of a strong and audible voice, who vied in wealth with the richest of the Romans, and was able to do what he pleased in the city, both then and afterward. This man put himself into the most mournful habit he could, although he had a greater hatred against Caius than any one else, his fear and his wise contrivance to gain his safety taught bim so to do, and prevailed over his present pleasure; so he put on such a mournful dress as he would have done had he lost his dearest friends in the world; this man came into the theatre, and informed them of the death of Caius, and by this means put an end to that state of ignorance the men had been 'in. Arruntius also went round about the pillars, and called out to the Germans, as did the tribunes with him, bidding them put up their swords, and telling them that Caius was dead. And this proclamation it was plainly which saved those that were collected together in the theatre, and all the rest who any way met the Germans ; for while they had hopes that Caius had still any breath in him, they abstained from no sort of mischief; and such an abundant kindness they still had for Caius, that they would willingly have prevented the plot against him, and procured his escape from so sad a misfortune, at the expence of their own.lives. But they now left off the warm zeal they had to punish bis enemies, now they were fully satisfied that Caius was dead, because it was now in vain for them to shew their zeal and kindness to him, when he who should reward them was perished. They were also afraid that they'should be punished by the senate, if they should go on in doing such injuries, that is, in case the authority of the supreme governor should revert to them. And thus at length a stop was put, though not without difficulty, to that rage which possessed the Germans on account of Caius's death.

19. But Cherea was so much afraid for Minucianus, 'lest he should light upon the Germans, now they were in their fury, that he went and spake to every one of the soldiers, and prayed them to take care of his preservation, and made himself great inquiry about him, lest he should bave been slain. And for Clement, he let Minucianus go when he was brought to him, and, with many other of the senators, affirmed the ac. tion was right, and commended the virtue of those that contrived it, and had courage enough to execute it; and said, that “ tyrants do indeed please themselves and look big for " a while, upon having the power to act unjustly; but do not “ however go happily out of the world, because they are « hated by the virtuous; and that Caius, together with all his 66 unhappiness, was become a conspirator against himself, be"s fore these other men who attacked him did so; and by be

coming intolerable, in setting aside the wise provision the “ laws had made, taught his dearest friends to treat him as • an enemy; insomuch, that although in common discourse « these conspirators were those that slew Caius, yet that, in 66 reality, he lies now dead as perishing by his ownself.”

20. Now by this time the people in the theatre were arisen from their seats, and those that were within made a very great disturbance; the cause of which was this, that the spectators were too basty in getting away. There was also one Alcyon, a physician, who hurried away, as if it were to cure those that were wounded, and under that pretence, he sent those that were with him to fetch what things were necessary for the healing those wounded persons, but in reality to get them clear of the present dangers they were in. Now the senate, during this interval had met, and the people also assembled together in the accustomed form, and were both employed in searching after the murderers of Caius. The people did it very zealously, but the senate in appearance only; for there was present Valerius of Asia, one that had been consul; this man went to the people, as they were in disorder, and very uneasy that they could not yet discover who they were that had murdered the emperor; he was then earnestly asked by them all, “ Who it was that had done it ?" He repli. ed, " I wish I had been the man." The consuls * also pub. lished an edict, wherein they accused Caius, and gave order to the people then got together, and to the soldiers to go home, and gave the people hopes of the abatement of the oppressions they lay under; and promised the soldiers, if they lay quiet as they used to do, and would not go abroad to do mischief unjustly, that they would bestow rewards upon them ; for there was reason to fear lest the city might suffer barm by their wild and ungovernable behaviour, if they should once betake themselves to spoil the citizens or plunder the temples. And now the whole multitude of the senators were assembled together, and especially those that had conspired to take away the life of Caius, who put on at this time an air of great assurance, and appeared with great magnanimity, as if the administration of the public affairs were already devolved upon them.

* These consuls are named in the war of the Jews, B. II. ch. xi. sect. 1. Vol. IV. Sentius Saturninus, and Pomponius Secundus, as Spanbeim notes here. The speech of the former of them is set down in the next chapter, sect. 2.


How the senators determined to restore the democracy; but

the soldiers were for preserving the monarchy. Concerning the slaughter of Caius's wife and daughter. A character of Caius's morals.

1. W hen the public affairs were in this posture, Claudius was on the sudden hurried away out of his house ; for the soldiers had a meeting together, and when they had debated about what was to be done, they saw that a democracy was incapable of managing such a vast weight of public affairs; and that if it should be set up, it would not be for their advantage; and in case any one of those already in the go. vernment should obtain the supreme power, it would in all respects be to their grief, if they were not assisting to him in that advancement; that it would therefore be right for them while the public affairs were unsettled, to choose Claudius emperor, who was uncle to the deceased Caius, and of a superior dignity and worth to every one of those that were as. sembled together in the senate, both on account of the virtues of his ancestors, and of the learning he had acquired in his education, and who, if once settled in the empire, would reward them according to their deserts, and bestow largessés upon them. These were their consultations, and they executed the same immediately. Claudius was therefore seized upon suddenly by the soldiery. But Cneas Sentius Saturninus, although he understood that Claudius was seized, and that he intended to claim the government, unwillingly indeed in appearance, but in reality by his own free consent, stood up in the senate, and, without being dismayed, made an exhortatory oration to them, and such an one indeed as was fit for men of freedom and generosity, and spake thus:

2. “ Although it be a thing incredible, O Romans, bė. 66 cause of the great length of time, that so unexpected an " event hath happened, yet are we now in possession of li« berty. How long indeed this will last is uncertain, and liés s at the disposal of the gods, whose grant it is ; yet such it


sort: derives, during can be thanave heard

" is as is sufficient to make us rejoice, and be bappy for the "s present, although we may soon be deprived of it; for one “ hour is sufficient to those that are exercised in virtue, where" in we may live with a mind accountable only to ourselves, 66 in our own country, now free, and governed by such laws “ as this country once flourished under. As for myself, I 66 cannot remember our former time of liberty, as being born " after it was gone; but I am beyond measure filled with “ joy at the thoughts of our present freedom. I also esteem " those, that were born and brought up in that our former 6 liberty, happy men, and that those men are worthy of no " less esteem than the gods themselves, who have given us a 66 taste of it in this age; and I heartily wish, that this quiet

enjoyment of it, which we have at present, might continue 66 to all ages. However, this single day may suffice for our " youth, as well as for us that are in years. It will seem an 66 age to our old men, if they might die during its happy " duration : it may also be for the instruction of the younger “ sort, what kind of virtue those men, from whose loins we os are derived, were exercised in. As for ourselves, our 66 business is, during the space of time, to live virtuously, 56 than which nothing can be more to our advantage; which 66 course of virtue it is alone than can preserve our liberty ; " for, as to our ancient state, I have heard of it by the rela6 tions of others, but as to our later state, during my life-time, “ I have known it by experience, and learned thereby what 6 mischiefs tyrannies have brought upon this commonwealth, “ discouraging all virtue, and depriving persons of magnani" mity of their liberty, and proving the teachers of flattery " and slavish fear, because it leaves the public administration “ not to be governed by wise laws, but by the humour of " those that govern. For since Julius Cæsar took it into his “ head to dissolve our democracy, and, by overbearing the 66 regular system of our laws, to bring disorders into our ad“ ministration, and to get above right and justice, and to be 66 a slave to his own inclinations, there is no kind of misery " but what hath tended to the subversion of this city; while " all those that have succeeded him have striven one with " another to overthrow the ancient laws of their country, " and have left it destitute of such citizens, as were of gene“ rous principles; because they thought it tended to their sc safety to have vicious, men to converse withal, and not on. “ ly to break the spirits of those that were best esteemed for " their virtue, but to resolve upon their utter destruction. “ Of all which emperors, who have been many in number, " and who laid upon us insufferable hardships during the “ times of their government, this Caius, who hath been slain

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