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" to day, hath brought more terrible calamities upon us than “ did all the rest, not only by exercising his ungoverned “ rage upon his fellow-citizens, but also upon his kindred “ and friends, and alike upon all others, and by inflicting “ still greater miseries upon them, as punishments, which “ they never deserved, he being equally furious against men, "s and against the gods. For tyrants are not content to gain “ their sweet pleasure, and this by acting injuriously, and in
the vexation they bring both upon men's estates, and their " wives ; but they look upon that to be their principal ad
vantage, when they can utterly overthrow the entire fami
lies of their enemies; while all lovers of liberty are the “ enemies of tyranny. Nor can those that patiently endure “ what miseries they bring on them, gain their friendship; " for as they are conscious of the abundant mischiefs they “ have brought on these men, and how magnanimously they “ have borne their hard fortunes, they cannot but be sensi“ ble what evils they have done, and thence only depend on “ security from what they are suspicious of, if it may be in “ their power to take them quite out of the world. Since “ then we are now gotten clear of such great misfortunes, and “ are only accountable to one another (which form of govern" ment affords us the best assurance of our present concord, " and promises us the best security from evil designs, and " will be most for our own glory in settling the city in good " order,) you ought, every one of you in particular, to make " provision for his own, and, in general, for the public uti“ lity; or, on the contrary, they may declare their dissent to
such things as have been proposed, and this without any a hazard of danger to come upon them; because they have 6 now no lord set over them, who, without fear of punish“ ment, could do mischief to the city, and had an uncon« troulable power to take off those that freely declared their « opinions. Nor has any thing so much contributed to 6 this increase of tyranny of late as sloth, and a timorous 6 forbearance of contradicting the emperor's will; while
men had an over-great inclination to the sweetness of
peace, and had learned to live like slaves, and as many of “ us as either heard of intolerable calamities that happened " at a distance from us, or saw the miseries that were near “ us, out of the dread of dying virtuously, endured a death “ joined with the utmost infamy. We ought then, in the "first place, to decree the greatest honours we are able to " those that have taken off the tyrant, especially to Cherea “ Cassius; for this one man, with the assistance of the gods, “ hath, by his counsel and by his actions, been the procurer “ of our liberty, Nor ought we to forget him now we have
" recovered our liberty, who, under the foregoing tyranny, “ took counsel before-hand, and before.band, hazarded him¢ self for our liberties; but ought to decree him proper bo“ nours, and thereby freely declare, that be from the beos ginving acted with our approbation. And certaiply it is a a very excellent thing, and what becomes freemen, to re" quite their benefactors, as this man hath been a benefac" tor to us all, though not at all like Cassius and Brutus, " who slew Caius Julius Cæsar;] for those men laid the foun" dations of sedition and civil wars in our city, but this man, o together with his slaughter of the tyrant, hath set our city “ free from all those sad miseries which arose from the ty“ ranny."*
3. And this was the purport of Sentius's oration, which was received with pleasure by the senators, and by as many of the equestrian order as were present. And now one Trebellius Maximus rose up hastily, and took off Sentius's finger a ring, wbich had a stone, with the image of Caius engraved upon it, and which, in his zeal in speaking, and his earnestness in doing wbat he was about, as it was supposed, he had forgotten to take off himself. This sculpture was broken immediately. But, as it was now far in the night, Cherea demanded of the consuls the watch-word, who gave him this word, Liberty. These facts were the subjects of admiration to themselves, and almost incredible: for it was an bundred years † since the democracy had been laid aside, wben this giving the watch-word returned to the consuls; for, before the city was subject to tyrants, they were the commanders of the soldiers. But, when Cherea had received that watchword, he delivered it to those who were on the senate's side, which were four regiments, who esteemed the government without emperors to be preferable to tyranny. So these went away with their tribunes. The people also now departed very joyful, full of hope and courage, as having recovered their former democracy, and were no longer under an emperor; and Cherea was in very great esteem with them. ..4. And now Cherea was very uneasy that Caius's daughter and wife were still alive, and that all his family did not perish with bim, since whosoever was left of them must be left for the ruin tof the city and of the laws. Moreover, in order to finish this matter with the utmost zeal, and in order to satisfy his hatred of Caius, he sent Julius Lupus, one of the tribunes, to kill Caius's wife and daughter. They proposed this office to Lupus as to a kinsman of Clement, that he might be so far a partaker of this murder of the tyrant, and might rejoice in the virtue of having assisted his fellow.citizens, and that be might appear to bave been a partaker with those that were first in their designs against him. Yet did this action appear to some of the conspirators to be too cruel, as to this using such severity to a womani, because Caius did more indulge his own ill-nature, than use her advice in all that he did; from which ill-nature it was that the city was in so desperate a condition with the miseries that were brought on it, and the flower of the city was destroyed. But others accused her of giving her consent to these things; nay, they ascribed att that Caius had done to her as the cause of it, and said, she had given a potion to Caius, which had made him obnoxious to her, and bad tied him down to love her by such evil methods; insomuch that she, having rendered him distracted, was become the author of all the mischiefs that had befalten the Romans, and that habitable world which was subject to them. So that at length it was determined, that she must die; nor could those of the contrary opinion at all prevail to have her'saved; and Lupus was sent accordingly. Nor was there any delay made in executing what he went about, but he was subservient to those that sent hing on the first opportunity, as desirous to be no way blameable in what might be done for the advantage of the people. So, when he was come into the palacez he found Cesonia, who was Caius's wife, lying by her husband's dead body, which also lay down on the ground, and destitute of all such things as the law allows to the dead, and all over herself besmeared with the blood of her husband's wounds, and bewailing the great affliction she was under, her daughter lying by her also: and nothing else was heard in these her circumstances, but her complaint of Caius, as if he had not regarded what she had often told him of before-hand; which words of hers were taken in a different sense even at that time, and are now esteemed equally ambiguous by those that hear of them, and are still interpreted according to the different inclinations of people. For some said that the words denoted, that she had advised him to leave off his mad behaviour and his barbarous cruelty to the citizens, and to govern the public with moderation and virtue, lest he should perish by the same way, up. on their using him as he had used them. But some said,
* In this oration of Septius Saturninus, we may see the great value virtuous men put upon public liberty, and the sad misery they underwent, while they were tyrannized over by such emperors' as Caius. See Josephus's own short but pithy reflection at the end of the chapter: “ So difficult,” says he, " it is “ for those to obtain the virtue that is necessary to a wise man, who have the “ absolute power to do what they, please, without controul.”
+ Hence we learn that, in the opinion of Saturninus, the sovereign authority of the consuls and senate had been taken away just 100 years before the death of Caius, A. D. 41, or on the 60th year before the Christian #ra, when the firs Triumvirate began under Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus.
that, as certain words had passed concerning the conspira. tors, she desired Caius to make no delay, but immediately to put them all to death, and this whether they were guilty or not, and that thereby he would be out of the fear of any danger; and that this was what she reproached himn for, when she advised him so to do, but he was too slow and tender in the matter. And this was what Cesonia said, and what the opinions of men were about it. But, when she saw Lupus approach, she shewed him Caius's dead body, and persuaded him to come nearer, with lamentation and tears; and as she perceived that Lupus was in disorder, and approached her in order to execute some design disagreeable to himself, she was well aware for what purpose he came, and stretched out her naked throat, and that very cheerfully to him, bewailing her case, like one that utterly despaired of her life, and bidding him not to bogglė at finishing the tragedy they had resolved upon relating to her. So she boldly' received her death's wound at the hand of Lupus, as did the daughter after her. So Lupus made haste to inform Cherea of what he had done.
5. This was the end of Caius, after he had reigned four years, within four months. He was, even before he came to be emperor, ill-natured, and one that had arrived at the utmost pitch of wickedness; a slave to his pleasures, and a lover of calumny; greatly affected by every terrible accident, and on that account of a very murderous disposition, where he durst shew it. He enjoyed his exorbitant power to this only purpose, to injure those who least deserved it, with unreasonable insolence, and got his wealth by murder and injustice. He laboured to appear above regarding either what was divine or agreeable to the laws, but was a slave to the commendations of the populace; and whatsoever the laws determined to be shameful, and punished, that he esteemed more honourable than what was virtuous. He was unmindful of his friends, how intimate soever, and though they were persons of the highest character; and, if he was once angry at any of them, he would inflict punishment upon them on the smallest occasions, and esteemed every man that endeavoured to lead a virtuous life his enemy. And, whatsoever he commanded, he would not admit of any, contradiction to his inclinations; whence it was that he had criminal conversation with his own sister ;* from which occasion chiefly it was also, that a bitter hatred first sprang up against him among the citizens, that sort of incest not having been known of a long time; and so this provoked men to distrust him, and to hate him that was guilty of it. And for any great or royal work that he ever did, which might be for the present and for future ages, nobody can name any such, but only the haven that he made about Rhegium and Sicily for reception of the ships that brought corn from Egypt; which was indeed a work without dispute, very great in itself, and of very great advantage to the navigation. Yet was not this work brought to perfection by him, but was the one half of it left imperfect, by reason of his want of application to it; the cause of which was this, that he employed his studies about useless matters, and that spending his money upon such pleasures as concerned no one's benefit but his own, he could not exert his liberality in things that were undeniably of great consequence. Otherwise he was an excellent orator, and . thoroughly acquainted with the Greek tongue, as well as with his own country or Roman language. He was also able offband and readily to give answers to compositions made by others, of considerable length and accuracy. He was also : more skilful in persuading others to very great things than any one else, and this from a natural affability of temper, which had been improved by much exercise and pains-iak. ing; for as he was the grandson * of the brother of Tiberius, whose successor he was, this was a strong inducement to his acquiring of learning, because Tiberius aspired after the highest pitch of that sort of reputation; and Caius aspired after the like glory for eloquence, being induced thereto by the letters of his kinsman and his emperor. He was also among the first rank of his own citizens. But the advantages he received from his learning did not countervail the mischief he brought upon himself in the exercise of his authority; so difficult it is for those to obtain the virtue that is necessary for a wise man, who have the absolute power to do what they please without controul. At the first he got himself such friends as were in all respects the most worthy, and was greatly beloved by them, while he imitated their zealous application to the learning and to the glorious actions of the best men ; but when he became insolent towards them, they laid aside the kindness they had for him, and began to hate him ; from which hatred came that plot, which they raised against him, and wherein he perished.
* Spanheim here notes from Suetonius, that the name of Caius's sister, with whom he was guilty of incest, was Drusilla ; and that Suetonius adds, he was guilty of the same crime with all his sisters also. He notes farther, that Suetonius omits the mention of the haven for ships, which our author esteems the only public, work for the good of the present and future ages which Caius left bemind him, though in an imperfect condition.