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of those houses, they abused them to the utmost of their power, and did such things to them as are too indecent to be related. They also laid themselves down in public places, and celebrated general feastings, with garlands on their heads, and with ointments and libations to Charon, and drinking to one another for joy that the king was expired. Nay, they were not only unmindful of Agrippa, who had extended his lie berality to them in abundance, but of his grandfather Herod also, who had himself rebuilt their cities, and had raised them havens and temples at vast expences.

2. Now Agrippa the son of the deceased, was at Rome, and brought up with Claudius Cæsar. And when Cæsar was informed that Agrippa was dead, and that the inhabitants of Sebaste and Cesarea bad abused him, he was sorry for the first news, and was displeased at the ingratitude of those cities. He was therefore disposed to send. Agrippa junior away presently to succeed his father in the kingdom, and was willing to confirm him in it by his oath. But those freed men and friends of his, who had the greatest authority with him, dissuaded him from it, and said, that " it was a dangerous experiment to permit so large a kingdom to come under the S government of so very young a man, and one hardly yet 6 arrived at the years of discretion, who would not be able " to take sufficient care of its administration; while the “ weight of a kingdom is heavy enough to a grown man.” So César thought what they said to be reasonable. Accord. ingly be sent Cuspius Fadus to be procurator of Judea, and of the entire kingdom, and paid that respect to the deceased, as not to introduce Marciis, who had been at variance with him, into his kingdom. But'he determined in the first place, to send orders to Fadus, that he should chastise the inhabi-' . tants of Cesarea and Sebaste for those abuses they had offered to him that was deceased, and their madness toward his daughters that were still alive; and that he should remove that body of soldiers that were at Cesarea and Sebaste, with the five regiments into Pontus, that they might do their military duty there, and that he should choose an equal number of soldiers out of the Roman legions, that were in Syria to supply their place. Yet were not those that had such orders actually removed; for by sending ambassadors to Claudius, they mollified him, and got leave to abide in Judea still; and these were the very men that became the source of very great calamities to the Jews in after times, and sowed the seeds of that war which began under Florus; whence it was, that when Vespasian had subdued the country, he removed them out of his province as we shall relate hereafter. statues or images, but the ladies themselves, which were thus basely abused by the soldiers, Cod. CCXXXVIII.

* This history is now wanting.

BOOK XX.

CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF TWENTY-TWO YEARS.

FROM FADUS THE PROCURATOR TO FLORUS.

С НА Р. І.

between the bout their borderlike temper; top of their principen

A sedition of the Philadelphians ugainst the Jews'; and alse

concerning the vestments of the high-priest. 8 1. Upon the death of king Agrippa, which we have related in the foregoing book, Claudius Cæsar sent Cassius Longinus, as successor to Marcus, out of regard to the memory of king Agrippa, who had often desired of him by letters, while he was alive, shat he would not suffer Marcus to be any longer president of Syria. But Fadus, as soon as he was come procurator into Judea, found quarrelsome doings between the Jews that dwelt in Perea, and the people of PhiJadelphia, about their borders, at a village called Mia, that was filled with men of a warlike temper; for the Jews of Perea had taken up arms without the consent of their principal men, and had destroyed many of the Philadelphians. When Fadus was informed of this procedure, it provoked him very much that they bad not left the determination of the matter to him, if they thought that the Philadelphians had done them any wrong, but had rashly taken up arms against them. So he seized upon three of their principal men, who were also the causes of this sedition, and ordered them to be bound, and afterward had one of them slain, whose name was Hannihal, and he banished the other two Amram and Eleazar. Tholomy also, the arch-robber, was, after some time brought to him bound, and slain, but not till he had done a world of mischief to Idumea and the Arabians. And indeed, from that time, Judea was cleared of robberies by the care and providence of Fadus. He also at this time sent for the highpriests and the principal citizens of Jerusalem, and this at the commands of the emperor, and admonished them, that they should lay up the long garment, and the sacred vestment, which it is customary for nobody but the high-priest to wear, in the tower of Antonia, that it might be under the power of the Romans, as it had been formerly. Now the Jews durst not contradict what he had said, but desired Fadus, however, and

Longinus, (which last was come to Jerusalem, and had brought a great army with him, out of a fear that the [rigid] injunctions of Fadus should force the Jews to rebel,) that they might, in the first place, have leave to send ambassadors to Cæsar to petition him, that they may have the holy vestments under their own power, and that, in the next place, they would tarry till they knew what answer Claudius would give to that their request. So they replied, that they would give them leave to send their ambassadors, provided they would give them their sons as pledges [for their peaceable behaviour.] And when they had agreed so to do, and had given them the pledges they desired, the ambassadors were sent accordingly. But when, upon their coming to Rome, Agrippa junior, the son of the deceased, understood the reason why they came, (for he dwelt with Claudius Cæsar as we said before,) he besought Cæsar to grant the Jews tbeir request about the holy vestments, and to send a message to Fadus accordingly.

2. Hereupon Člaudius called for the ambassadors, and told them, That" he granted their request;” and bade them to return their thanks to Agrippa for this favour, which had been bestowed on them upon bis intreaty. And, besides these answers of his, he sent the following letter by them : " Claudius Cæsar Germanicus, tribune of the people the “ fifth time, and designed consul the fourth time, and impe" rator the tenth time, the father of his country, to the ma“ gistrates, senate, and people, and the whole nation of the “ Jews, sendeth greeting: Upon the representation of your " ambassadors to me by Agrippa, my friend, whom I have • brought up, and have now with me, and who is a person of "s very great piety, who are come to give me thanks for the " care I have taken of your nation, and to entreat me, in an .“ earnest and obliging manner, that they may have the holy “ vestments, with the crown belonging to them, under their " power ; I grant their request, as that excellent person Vi“ tellius, who is very dear to me, had done before me. And “ I have complied with your desire, in the first place, out of 66 regard to that piety which I profess, and because I would “ have every one worship God according to the laws of their 66 own country ; and this I do also because I shall hereby 66 highly gratify king Herod, and Agrippa junior, wbose sa66 cred regards to me, and earnest good-will to you, I am 66 well acquainted with, and with whom I have the greatest “ friendship, and whom I higbly esteem, and look on as 56 persons of the best character. Now I have written about 66 these affairs to Cuspius Fadus, my procurator. The naines “ of those that brought me your letter are, Cornelius, the son

“ of Cero, Trypho, the son of Theudio, Dorotheus, the son " of Nathaniel, and John, the son of John. This letter is “6 dated before the fourth of the calends of July, when Ru“ fus and Pompeius Sylvanus are consuls.” i

3. Herod also, the brother of the deceased Agrippa, who was then possessed of the royal authority over Chalcis, petitioned Claudius Cæsar for the authority over the temple, and the money of the sacred treasure, and the choice of the highpriests, and obtained all that he petitioned for. So that af. ter that time this authority continued among * all his descendants till the end of the war. Accordingly Herod removed the last high-priest, called Cantheras, and bestowed that dignity on his successor Joseph the son of Camus.

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How Helena, the Queen of Adiabene, and her son Izates em

braced the Jewish religion; and how Helena supplied the poor with corn, when there was a great famine at Jerusalem.

§ 1. ABOUT this time it was that Helena, queen of Adiabene, and her son Izates changed their course of life, and embraced the Jewish customs, and this on the occasion following: Monobazus, the king of Adiabene, who had also the name of Bazeus, fell in love with his sister Helena, and took her to be his wife, and begat her with child. But as he was in bed with her one night, he laid bis hand upon his wife's belly, and fell asleep and seemed to hear a voice, which bid him take his hand off his wife's belly, and not hurt the infant that was therein, wbich, by God's providence, would be safe. ly born, and have an happy end, This voice put him into disorder; so he awaked immediately, and told the story to his wife ; and when his son was born, he called him Izates. He had indeed Monobazus, his elder brother, by Helena also, as he had other sons by other wives besides. Yet did he openly place all his affections on this his only begotten t son Izates, which was the origin of that envy which his other brethren, by the same father, bore to him ; while on this account they hated him more and more, and were all under great affliction that their father should prefer Izates before them. Now although their father was very sensible of these their passions, yet did he forgive them, as not indulging those passions out of an ill disposition, but out of a desire each of them had to be beloved by their father. However, he sent Izates with many presents, to Abennerig, the king of Charax-Spa-sini, and that out of the great dread he was in about him, lest he should come to some misfortune, by the hatred 'his brethren bore him ; and he committed his son's preservation to bim. Upon which Abennerig gladly received the young man, and had a great affection for him; and married him to his own daughter, whose name was Samacha : he also bestowed a country upon him, from which he received large revenues.

* Here is some error in the copies, or mistake in Josephus; for the power of appointing bigh-priests, after Herod king of Chalcis was dead, and Agrippa junior was made king of Chalcis in his room, belonged to him, and he exercises the same all along till Jerusalem was destroyed, as Josephus elsewhere informs us. ch. viji. sect. 8, 11. ch. ix. $ 1, 4, 6, 7.

t. Josephus here uses the word povoyevn, an only begolten son, for no other than one best beloved, as does both the Old and New Testament, I mean where there were one or more sons besides, Gen. xxii. 2. Heb. xi. 17. See the note on B. I. cb. xiii, sect, 1. Vol. I.

2. But when Monobazus was grown old, and saw that he had but a little time to live, he had a mind to come to the sight of his son before he died. So he sent for him, and embraced him after the most affectionate manner, and bestowed on him the country called Carræ; it was a soil that bare amomum in great plenty: there are also in it the remains of that ark, wherein it is related that Noah escaped the deluge, and where they are still shewn to such as are desirous to see them. * Accordingly Izates abode in that country until his father's death. But the very day that Monobazus died, queen Helena sent for all the grandees, and governors of the kingdom, and for those that had the armies committed to their command ; and when they were come she made the following speech to them: “I believe you are not unac6c quainted that my husband was desirous Izates should suc“ ceed him in the government, and thought him worthy so 56 to do. However, I wait your determination ; for happy is „“ he who receives a kingdom not from a single person only, 6 but from the willing suffrages of a great many.” This she said in order to try those that were invited, and to discover their sentiments. Upon the hearing of which, they first of all paid their homage to the queen, as their custom was, and then they said, That “ they confirmed the king's determina« tion, and would submit to it; and they rejoiced that Izates's 66 father had preferred him before the rest of his brethren, 66 as being agreeable to all their wishes : but that they were " desirous first of all to slay his brethren and kinsmen, that 66 so the government might come securely to Izates; because " if they were once destroyed, all that fear would be over 56 which might arise from their hatred and envy to him."

* It is bere very remarkable, that the remains of Noah's ark were believed to be still in being in the days of Josephus. See the note on B. I. cb, üi, sect. 5. Vol. I.

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