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ing; so great an affliction did the impudent obsceneness of a single soldier bring upon them.*
4. Now before this their first mourning was over, another mischief befel them also; for some of those that raised the foregoing tumult, when they were travelling along the public road, about an hundred furlongs from the city, robbed Stephanus a servant of Cæsar, as he was journeying, and plundered him of all that he had with him. Which things when Cumanus heard of, he sent soldiers immediately, and ordered them to plunder the neighbouring villages, and to bring the most eminent persons among them in bonds to him. Now as' this devastation was making, one of the soldiers seized the laws of Moses that lay in one of those villages, and brought them out before the eyes of all present, and tore them to pieces; and this was done with reproachful language, and much scurrility. Which things when the Jews heard of, they ran together, and that in great numbers, and came down to Cæsarea, where Cumanus thei was, and besought him, that he would avenge, not themselves, but God himself, whose laws had been affronted; for that they could not bear to live any longer, if the laws of their forefathers must be affronted after this manner. Accordingly Cumanus out of fear lest the multitude should go into a sedition, and by the advice of his friends also, took care that the soldier who had offered the affront to the laws should be beheaded, and thereby put a stop to the sedition which was ready to be. kindled a second time.
How there happened a quarrel between the Jews and the Sa
maritans, and how Claudius put an end to their differences. § 1. Now there arose a quarrel between the Samaritans and the Jews on the occasion following: It was the custom of the Galileans, when they came to the holy city at the festivals, to take their journeys through the country of the Sainaritans ;t and at this time there lay, in the road they took,
* This, and many more tumults and seditions, which arose at the Jewish festivals, in Josephus, illustrate that cautious procedure of the Jewish governors, when they said, Mat. xxvi. 5. " Let us not take Jesus on the feast-day, “ lest there be an uproar among the people;" as Reland well observes on this place. Josephus also takes notice of the same thing, Of the war, B. I. ch. iv. sect. 3. Vol. III.
of This constant passage of the Galileans through the country of Samaria, as they went to Judea and Jerusalem, illustrates several passages in the gospels to the same purpose, as Dr. Hudson rightly observes. See Luke xvii. 1. John iv. 4. See also Josephus in his own life, sect. 52. Vol. III. where that journey is determined to three days.
a village that was called Ginea, which was situated in the limits of Samaria and the great plain, where certain persons thereto belonging fought with the Galileans, and killed a great many of them. But, when the principal of the GaliJeans were informed of what had been done, they came to Cumanus, and desired him to avenge the murder of those that were killed; but he was induced by the Samaritans, with money, to do nothing in the matter : Upon which the Galileans were much displeased, and persuaded the multitude of the Jews to betake themselves to arms, and to regain their liberty, saying, That “ slavery was in itself a bitter thing, but " that when it was joined with direct injuries, it was perfect6c ly intolerable.” And when their principal men endeavoured to pacify them, and promised to endeavour to persuade Cumanus to avenge those that were killed, they would not hearken to them, but took their weapons, and entreated the assistance of Eleazer, the son of Dineus, a robber, who had many years made his abode in the mountains, with which assistance they plundered many villages of the Samaritans. When Cumanus heard of this action of theirs, he took the band of Sebaste, with four regiments of footmen, and armed the Samaritans, and marched out against the Jews, and caught them, and slew many of them, and took a great number of them alive : whereupon those that were the most eminent persons at Jerusalem, and that both in regard of the respect that was paid them and the families they were of, as soon as they saw to what an height things were gone, put on sackcloth, and heaped ashes upon tbeir heads, and by all possible means besought the seditious, and persuaded them that they would set before their eyes the utter subversion * of their country, the conflagration of their temple, and the slavery of themselves, their wives and children, which would be the consequences of what they were doing, and would alter their minds, would cast away their weapons, and for the future be quiet, and return to their own homes. These persuasions of theirs prevailed upon them. So the people dispersed themselves, and the robbers went away again to their places of strength; and after this time all Judea was over-run with robberies.
2. But the principal of the Samaritans went to Ummidius Quadratus, the president of Syria, who at that time was at Tyre, and accused the Jews of setting their villages on fire, and plundering them; and said withal, That “ they were not « so much displeased at what they had suffered, as they « were at the contempt thereby shewed the Romans; while, “ if they had received any injury, they ought to have made " them the judges of what bad been done, and not presently 66 to make such devastation, as if they had not the Romans for " their governors ; on which account they came to him, in " order to obtain that vengeance they wanted.” This was the accusation which the Samaritans brought against the Jews, But the Jews affirmed, that the Samaritans were the authors of this tumult and fighting, and that, in the first place, Cumanus had been corrupted by their gifts, and passed over the murder of those that were slain, in silence. Which allegations when Quadratus heard, he put off the hearing of the cause, and promised that he would give sentence when he should come into Judea, and should have a more exact knowledge of the truth of that matter. So these men went away without success. Yet was it not long ere Quadratus came to Samaria, where, upon hearing the cause, he supposed that the Samaritans were the authors of that disturbance. But, when he was informed that certain of the Jews were making innovations, he ordered those to be crucified whom Cumanus had taken captives. From whence he went to a certain village called Lydda, which was not less than a city in largeness, and there heard the Samaritan cause a second time be. fore his tribunal, and there learned from a certain Samaritan, that one of the chief of the Jews, whose name was Dortus, and some other innovators with bim, four in number, persuaded the multitude to a revolt from the Romans; whom Quadratus ordered to be put to death: but still he sent away Ananias the high-priest, and Ananus the commander (of the temple,] in bonds to Rome, to give an account of what they had done to Claudius Cæsar. He also ordered the principal men both of the Samaritans and of the Jews, as also Cumanus the procurator, and Celer the tribune, to go to Italy to the emperor, that he might hear their cause, and determine their differences one with another. But he came again to the city of Jerusalem, out of his fear that the multitude of the Jews should attempt some innovations; but he found the city in a peaceable state, and celebrating one of the usual festivals of their country to God. So he believed that they would not attempt any innovations, and left them at the celebration of the festival, and returned to Antioch.
* Our Saviour had foretold, that the Jews' rejection of his gospel would bring upon them, among other miseries, these three, which they themselves here shew, they expected, would be the consequence of their present tumults and seditions; the utter subversion of their country, the conflagration of their tem. ple, and the slavery of themselves, their wives and children. See Luke xxi. 6.-24.
3. Now Cumanus, and the principal of the Samaritans, who were sent to Rome, had a day appointed them by the emperor, whereon they were to have pleaded their cause about the quarrels they had one with another. But now Cæsar's freed-men, and his friends, were very zealous on the behalf of Cumanus and the Samaritans; and they had prevailed over the Jews, unless Agrippa junior who was then at Rome, had seen the principal of the Jews hard set, and had earnestly entreated Agrippina, the emperor's wife, to persuade her husband to hear the cause, so as was agreeable to his justice, and to condemn those to be punished who were really the authors of this revolt from the Roman government. Whereupon Claudius was so well disposed beforehand, that when he had heard the cause, and found that the Samaritans had been the ring-leaders in those mischievous doings, he gave order, that those who came up to him should be slain, and that Cumanus should be banished. He also gare order, that Celer the tribune should be carried back to Jerusalem, and should be drawn through the city in the sight of all the people, and then should be slain. '
C H A P. VI.
Felix is made procurator of Judea; as also concerning Agrippa
junior, and his sisters. § 1. So Claudius sent Felix, the brother of Pallans, to take care of the affairs of Judea; and, when he had already completed the twelfth year of his reign, he bestowed upon Agrippa the tetrarchy of Philip, and Batanea, and added thereto Trachonitis, with Abila ; which last had been the tetrarchy of Lysanias; but he took from him Chalcis, when he had been governor thereof four years. And, when Agrippa had received these countries as the gift of Cæsar, he gave his sister Drusilla in marriage to Azizus, king of Emesa, upon his consent to be circumcised; for Epiphanes, the son of king Antiochus, had refused to marry her, because, after he had promised her father formerly to come over to the Jewish religion, he would not now perform that promise. He also gave Mariamne in marriage to Archelaus, the son of Helcias, to whom she had been betrothed formerly by Agrippa her father; from which marriage was derived a daughter, whose name was Bernice.
2. But for the marriage of Drusilla with Azizus, it was in - no long time afterward dissolved upon the following occasion : While Felix was procurator of Judea, he saw this Drusilla, and fell in love with her; for she did indeed exceed all other women in beauty; and he sent to her a person whose name was Simon,* one of his friends, a Jew he was, and by birth a
* This Simon, a friend of Felix, a Jew, born in Cyprus, though he pretend. ed to be a magician, and seems to have been wicked enough, could hardly be that famous Simon the magician, in the Acts of the Apostles, viii. 9, &c. as some are ready to suppose. This Simon mentioned in the Acts was not properly a Jew, but a Samaritan, of the town of Gittæ, in the country of Samaria, as the Apostolical Constitutions, VI. 7. the Recognitions of Clement, 11. 6. and Justin Martyr, himself born in the country of Samaria, Apology, 1. 34. inform us. He was also the author, not of any ancient Jewish, but of the first Gentile heresies, as the forementioned authors assure us. So I suppose him a different person from the other. I mean this only upon the hypothesis, that Josephus was not misinformed as to his being a Cypriot Jew; for otherwise the time, the name, the profession, and the wickedness of them both, would strongly in- i cline one to believe them the very same. As to that Drusilla, the sister of Agrippa junior, as Josephus informs us here, and a Jewess, as St. Luke informs us, Acts xxiv. 24. whom this Simon mentioned by Josephas, persuaded to leave her former husband, Azizus, king of Emesa, a proselyte of justice, and to marry Felix, the heathen procurator of Judea, Tacitus, Hist. V. 9. supposes her to be an heathen, and the grand-daughter of Antonius and Cleopatra, contrary both to St. Luke and Josephus. Now Tacitus lived somewhat too remote both as to time and place, to be compared with either of those Jewish writers, in a matter concerning the Jews in Judea in their own days, and concerning a sister of Agrippa junior, with which Agrippa Josepbus was himself so well acquainted. It is probable that Tacitus may say true when he informs us, that this Felix (who bad in all three wives, or queens, as Suetonius in Claudius sect. 28. assures us) did once marry such a grandchild of Antonius and Cleopatra, and, finding the name of one of them to have been Drusilla, be mistook her for that other wife, whose name he did not know.
Cypriot, and one who pretended to be a magician, and endeavoured to persuade her to forsake her present husband, and marry him; and promised, that, if she would not refuse him, he would make her a happy woman. Accordingly she acted ill, and because she was desirous to avoid her sister Bernice's envy, for she was very ill treated by her on account of her beauty, was prevailed upon to transgress the laws of her forefathers, and to marry Felix ; and, when he had had a son by her, he named him Agrippa. But after what manner that young man, with his wife, perished at the conflagration * of the mountain Vesuvius, in the days of Titus Cæsar, shall be related hereafter.t
3. But as for Bernice, she lived a widow a long while after the death of Herod, [king of Chalcis), who was both her husband and her uncle ; but, wben the report went that she had criminal conversation with her brother, [Agrippa junior), she persuaded Polemo, who was king of Cilicia, to be circumcised, and to marry her, as supposing, that by this means she should prove those calumnies upon her to be false; and Polemo was prevailed upon, and that chiefly on account of her riches. Yet did not this matrimony endure long; but Bernice left Polemo, and, as was said, with impure intentions.
* This eruption of Vesuvius was one of the greatest we have in history. See Bianchini's curious and important observations on this Vesuvius, and its seven several great eruptions, with their remains vitrified, and still existing, in so ma. ny different strata under ground, till the diggers came to the antediluvian wa. ters, with their proportionable interstices, implying the deluge to have been above 2500 years before the Christian æra, according to our exactest chronology.
+ This is now wanting..