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36. But before this it happened, that Philip, the son of Jacimus, went out of the citadel of Gamala upon the following occasion : When Philip had been informed that Varus was put out of his government by king Agrippa, and that Modius Equicolus, a man that was of old his friend and companion, was come to succeed him, he wrote to him, and related what turns of fortune he had had, and desired him to forward the letters he sent to the king and queen. Now when Modius had received these letters, he was exceeding glad, and sent the letters to the king and queen, who were then about Berytus. But when king Agrippa knew that the story about Philip was false, (for it had been given out, that the Jews had begun a war with the Romans, and that this Philip had been their commander in that war), he sent some horsemen to conduct Philip to him, and, when he was come, he saluted him very obligingly, and shewed him to the Roman commanders, and told them that this was the man of whom the report had gone about as if he had revolted from the Romans. He also bid him take some horsemen with him, and to go quickly to the citadel of Gamala, and to bring out thence all his domestics, and to restore the Babylonians to Batanea again. He also
gave it him in charge to take all possible care that none of his subjects should be guilty of making any innovation, Accordingly, upon these directions from the king, he made haste to do what he was commanded.
37. Now there was one Joseph, the son of a female physi. cian, who excited a great many young men to join with him. He also insolently addressed himself to the principal persons at Gamala, and persuaded them to revolt from the king, and take up arms, and gave them hopes that they should, by his means, recover their liberty. And some they forced into the service, and those that would not acquiesce in what they had resolved on, they slew. They also slew Cheres, and with him Jesus, one of his kinsmen, and a brother of Justus of Tiberi. as, as we have already said. Those of Gamala also wrote to me, desiring me to send them an armed force, and workmen to raise up the walls of their city ; nor did I reject either of their requests. The region of Gaulonites did also revolt from the king, as far as the village Solyma. I also built a wall about Seleucia and Soganni, which are villages naturally of very great strength. Moreover 1, in like manner, walled several villages of Upper Galilee, though they were very rocky of themselves. Their names are Jamnia, and Meroth, and Achabare. I also fortified, in the lower Galilee, the cities Taricheæ, Tiberias, Sepphoris, and the villages, the cave of Arbela, Bersobe, Selamin, Jotapata, Caphareccho, and Sigo,
and Japha, and mount Tabor.* I also laid up a great quantity of corn in these places, and arms withal, that might be for their security afterward.
38. But the hatred that John, the son of Levi bore to me, grew now more violent, while he could not bear my prosperity with patience. So he proposed to himself, by all means possible to make away with me, and built the walls of Gischala, which was the place of his nativity. He then sent his brother Simon, and Jonathan, the son of Sisenna, and about an hundred armed men to Jerusalem to Simon, the son of Gamaliel,t in order to persuade him to induce the commonality of Jerusalem to take from me the government over the Galileans, and to give their suffrages for conferring that authority upon him. This Simon was of the city Jerusalem, and of a very noble family, of the sect of the Pharisees, which are supposed to excel others in the accurate knowledge of the laws of their country. He was a man of great wisdom and reason, and capable of restoring public affairs by his prudence, when they were in an ill posture. He was also an old friend and companion of John; but at that time he had a difference with me. When therefore he had received such an exhortation, he persuaded the high-priests, Ananus and Jesus, the son of Gamala, and some others of the same seditious faction, to cut me down now I was growing so great, and not to overlook me while I was aggrandizing myself to the height of glory; and he said, that it would be for the advantage of the Galileans, if I were deprived of my government there. Ananus also, and bis friends desired them to make no delay about the matter, lest I should get the knowledge of what was doing too soon, and should come and make an assault upon the city with a great army. This was the counsel of Simon; but Ananus the bigh-priest demonstrated to them, that this was not an easy thing to be done, because many of the high-priests and of the rulers of the people bore witness that I had acted like an excellent general, and that it was the work of ill men to accuse one against whom they had nothing
39. When Simon heard Ananus say this, be desired that the messengers would conceal the thing, and not let it come among many; for that he would take care to have Josephus removed out of Galilee very quickly. So he called for
* Part of these fortifications on Mount Tabor may be those still remaining, and which were seen lately by Mr. Maundrel. See his Travels, p. 112.
+ This Gamaliel may be the very same that is mentioned by the rabbins in the Mishna in Juchasin and in Porta Moses, as is observed in the Latin notes. He might be also that Gamaliel Il, whose grandfather was Gamaliel I. who is mentioned Acts v. 34. and at whose feet St. Paul was brought up, Acts xxii. 3. See Prid, at the year 446.
John's brother (Simon), and charged him, that they should send presents to Ananus and his friends; for, as he said, they might probably by that means persuade them to change their minds. And indeed Simon did at length thus compass what he aimed at ; for Ananus, and those with him, being corrupted by bribes, agreed to expel me out of Galilee, without making the rest of the citizens acquainted with what they were doing. Accordingly they resolved to send men of distinction as to their families, and of distinction as to their learning also. Two of these were of the populace, Jonathan * and Ananias, by sect Pharisees; while the third, Jo. zar, was of the stock of the priests, and a Pharisee also; and Simon, the last of them, was of the youngest of the highpriests. These had it given them in charge, that, when they were come to the multitude of the Galileans, they should ask them what was the reason of their love to me and if they said, that it was because I was born at Jerusalem, that they should reply, that they four were all born at the same place; and if they should say, it was because I was well versed in their law, they should reply, that neither were they unacquainted with the practices of their country; but if, besides these, they should say, they loved me because I was a priest, they should reply, that two of these were priests also.
40. Now, when they had given - Jonathan and his companions these instructions, they gave them forty thousand [drachmæ] out of the public money: but when they beard that there was a certain Galilean that then sojourned at Jerusalem, whose name was Jesus, who had about him a band of six hundred armed men, they sent for him, and gave him three months pay, and gave him orders to follow Jonathan and his companions, and be obedient to them. They also gave money to three hundred men that were citizens of Jerusalem, to maintain them all, and ordered them also to follow the ambassadors; and when they had complied, and were gotten ready for the march, Jonathan and his companions went out with them, having along with them John's brother, and an hundred armed men, The charge that was given them by those that sent them was this, that if I would voluntarily lay down my arms, they should send me alive to the city Jerusalem, but that, in case I opposed them, they should kill me, and fear nothing; for that it was their command for them so to do. They also wrote to John to make all ready for fighting me, and gave orders to the inhabitants of Sepphoris, and Gabara, and Tiberias, to send auxiliaries to John.
41.. Now as my father wrote me an account of this, (for * This Jonathan is also taken notice of in the Latin notes, as the same that is mentioned by the rabbins in Porta Mosis.
Jesus, the son of Gamala, who was present in that council, a friend and companion of mine, told him of it), I was very much troubled, as discovering thereby, that my fellow-citi. zens proved so ungrateful to me, as, out of envy, to give order that I should be slain ; my father earnestly pressed me also in his letter to come to him, for that he longed to see his son before he died. I informed my friends of these things, and that in three days time I should leave the country, and go home. Upon hearing this, they were all very sorry, and desired me, with tears in their eyes, not to leave them to be destroyed; for so they thought they should be, if I were deprived of the conımand over them : but as I did not grant their request, but was taking care of my own safety, the Galileans, out of their dread of the consequence of my departure, that they should then be at the mercy of the robbers, sent messengers over all Galilee to inform them of my resoJution to leave them. Whereupon, as soon as they heard it, they got together in great numbers, from all parts, with their wives and children ; and this they did, as it appeared to me, not more out of their affection to me, than out of their fear on their own account; for, while I staid with them, they supposed that they should suffer no harm. So they all came into the great plain, wherein I lived, the name of which was Asochis.
42. But wonderful it was what a dream I saw that very - night; for when I had betaken myself to my bed, as grieved and disturbed at the news that had been written to me, it seemed to me, that a certain person stood by me,* and said, “ O Josephus ! leave off to amict thy soul, and put away all “ fear; for what now grieves thee will render thee very con“ siderable, and in all respects most happy; for thou shalt
get over not only these difficulties, but many others, with
great success. However, be not cast down, but remember “ that thou art to fight with the Romans.” When I had seen this dream, I got up with an intention of going down to the plain. Now when the whole multitude of the Galileans, among whom were the women and children, saw me, they threw themselves down upon their faces, and with tears in their eyes, besought me not to leave them exposed to their enemies, nor to go away and permit their country to be injured by them. But, when I did not comply with their intreaties, they compelled me to take an oath, that I would stay with them : they also cast abundance of reproaches upon the people of Jerusalem, that they would not let their country enjoy peace.
* This I take to be the first of Josephus's remarkable or divine dreams,.which were predictive of the great things that afterwards came to pass : of which see more in the note on Antiq. B. III. ch. viii. sect. 9. Vol. I. The other is in the War, B. III. ch. viii, seet. 3, 9. Vol. IV.
43. When I heard this, and saw what sorrow the people were in, I was moved with compassion to them, and thought it became me to undergo the most manifest hazards for the sake of so great a multitude; so I let them know I would stay with them. And when I had given order that five thousand of them should come to me armed, and with provisions for their maintenance, I sent the rest away to their own homes; and, when those five thousand were come, I took them, together with three thousand of the soldiers that were with me before, and eighty horsemen, and marched to the village of Chabolo, situated in the confines of Ptolemais, and there kept my forces together, pretending to get ready to fight with Placidus, who was come with two coborts of footmen, and one troop of horsemen, and was sent thither by Cestius Gallus to burn those villages of Galilee that were near Ptolemais. Upon whose casting up a bank before the city Ptolemais, I also pitched my camp at about the distance of sixty furlongs from that village. And now we frequently brought out our forces as if we would fight, but proceeded no farther than skirmishes at a distance ; for, when Placidus perceived that I was earnest to come to a battle, he was afraid, and avoided it. Yet did he not remove from the neighbourhood of Ptolemais.
44. About this time it was that Jonathan and his fellow-legates came. They were sent, as we have said already, by Simon, and Ananus the high-priest. And Jonathan contrived how he might catch me by treachery; for he durst not make any attempt upon me openly. So he wrote me the following epistle : “ Jonathan and those that are with him, and
are sent by the people of Jerusalem, to Josephus, send « greeting. We are sent by the principal men of Jerusa• salem, who have heard that John of Gischala hath laid
many snares for thee, to rebuke bim, and to exhort him $6 to be subject to thee hereafter. We are also desirous to 66 consult with thee about our common concerns, and what is 66 fit to be done. We therefore desire thee to come to us « quickly, and to bring only a few men with thee ; for this 65 village will not contain a great number of soldiers.” Thus it was that they wrote, as expecting one of these two things, either that I should come without armed men, and then they should have me wholly in their power ; or, if I came with a a great number, they should judge me to be a public enemy. Now it was an horseman who brought the letter, a man at other times bold, and one that had served in the army under she king. It was the second hour of the night that he came,