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Antigonus had given him; yet was not Herod himself destitute of power, but the number of his forces increased every day as he went along, and all Galilee, with few exceptions, joined themselves to him. So he proposed to himself to set about his most necessary enterprize; and that was Masada, in order to deliver his relations from the siege they endured. But still Joppa stood in his way, and hindered his going thi. ther; for it was necessary to take that city first, which was in the enemies' hands, that when he should go to Jerusalem, no fortress might be left in the enemies' power behind him. Silo also willingly joined him, as having now a plausible occasion of drawing off his forces [from Jerusalem :] and when the Jews pursued him, and pressed upon him [in bis retreat] Herod made an excursion upon them with a small body of his men, and soon put them to flight, and saved Silo when he was in distress.

4. After this Herod took Joppa, and then made haste to Masada to free his relations. Now as he was marching, many came in to him, induced, some by their friendship to his father, some by the reputation he had already gained himself, and some in order to repay the benefits they had received from them both: but still what engaged the greatest number on his side, was the hopes from him, when he should be established in his kingdom ; so that he had gotten together already an army hard to be conquered. But Antigonus laid an ambush for him as he marched out, in which he did little or no harm to his enemies. However, he easily recovered his relations again that were in Masada, as well as the fortress Ressa, and then marched to Jerusalem, where the soldiers that were with Silo joined themselves to his own, as did many out of the city from a dread of his power.

5. Now when he had pitched his camp on the west side of the city, the guards that were there shot their arrows, and threw their darts at them, while others ran out in companies and attacked those in the fore-front: but Herod commanded proclamation to be made at the wall, That ' he was come for

the good of the people, and the preservation of the city, without any design to be revenged on his open enemies, I but to grant oblivion to them, though they had been the

most obstinate against him.' Now the soldiers that were for Antigonus made a contrary clamour, and did neither permit any body to hear that proclamation, nor to change their party ; so Antigonus gave order to his forces to beat the enemy from the walls; accordingly they soon threw their darts at them from the towers, and put them to flight.

6. And here it was that Silo discovered he had taken bribes; for he set many of the soldiers to clamour about their want of

necessaries, and to require their pay, in order to buy themselves food, and to demand that he would lead them into places convenient for their winter-quarters; because all the parts about the city were laid waste by the means of Antigonus's army, which had taken all things away. By this he moved the army, and attempted to get them off the siege; but Herod went to the captains that were under Silo, and to a great many of the soldiers, and begged of them not to leave him, who was sent thither by Cæsar, and Antony, and the senate ; for that he would take care to have their wants supplied that very day. After the making of which intreaty, he went hastily into the country, and brought thither so great an abundance of necessaries, that he cut off all Silo's pretences ; and in order to provide that for the following days they should not want supplies, he sent to the people that were about Sa. maria (which city bad joined itself to him), to bring corn and wine, and oil, and cattle, to Jericho. When Antigonus heard of this, he sent some of his party with orders to hinder, and lay ambushes for these collectors of corn. This command was obeyed, and a great multitude of armed men were gathered together about Jericho, and lay upon the mountains, to watch those that brought the provisions. Yet was not Herod idle, but took with him ten cohorts, five of them were Romans, and five were Jewish cohorts, togetber with some mercenary troops intermixed among them, and besides those a few horsemen, and came to Jericho ; and when he came he found the city deserted, but that there were five hundred men, with their wives and children, who had taken possession of the tops of the mountains; these he took, and dismissed them, while the Romans fell upon the rest of the city, and plundered it, having found the houses full of all sorts of good things. So the king left a garrison at Jericho, and came back, and sent the Roman army into those cities which were come over to him, to take their winter-quarters there, viz. into Judea, [or Idumea] and Galilee, and Samaria. Antigonus also by bribes obtained of Silo to let a part of his army be receiv. ed at Lydda, as a compliment to Antonius.

CHAP. XVI.

Herod takes Sepphoris, and subdues the robbers that were in

the caves : he after that avenges himself upon Macheras as upon an enemy of his, and goes to Antony as he was be

sieging Samosata. § 1. So the Romans lived in plenty of all things, and rested from war. However, Herod did not lie at rest, but seized upon Idumea, and kept it, with two thousand footmen and four hundred horsemen; and this he did by sending his brother Joseph thither, that no innovation might be made by Antigonus. He also removed his mother, and all his relations, who had been in Masada, to Samaria, and when he had settled them securely, he marched to take the remaining parts of Galilee, and to drive away the garrisons placed there by Antigonus.

2. But when Herod had reached * Sepphoris, in a very great snow, he took the city without any difficulty; the guards that should have kept it, flying away before it was assaulted; where he gave an opportunity to his followers that had been in distress to refresh themselves, there being in that city a great abundance of necessaries. After which he hasted away to the robbers that were in the caves, who over-ran a great part of the country, and did as great mischief to its inhabitants, as a war itself could have done. Accordingly he sent beforehand three cohorts of footmen, and one troop of horsemen, to the village Arbela, and came himself + forty days afterward, with the rest of his forces. Yet were not the enemy affrighted at his assault, but met him in arms; for their skill was that of warriors, but their boldness was the boldness of robbers ; when, therefore, it came to a pitched battle, they put to flight Herod's left wing, with their right one; but Herod, wheeling about on the sudden from his own right wing, came to their assistance, and both made his own left wing return back from its flight, and fell upon the pursuers, and cooled their courage, till they could not bear the attempts that were made directly upon them, and so turned back and ran away.

3. But Herod followed them, and slew them as he followed them, and destroyed a great part of them, till those that remained were scattered beyond the river (Jordan] and Galilee was freed from the terrors they had been under, excepting from those that remained, and lay concealed in caves, which required longer time ere they could be conquered. In order to which, Herod, in the first place, distributed the fruits of their former labours to the soldiers, and gave every one of

* This Sepphoris, the metropolis of Galilee, so often mentioned by Josephus, has coins still remaining, SEPPHORENON, as Spanheimn here informs us.

+ This way of speaking after 40 days, is interpreted by Josephus himself, on the 40th day; Antiq. B. XIV. chap. xv. sect. 4. In like manner, when Josephus says, chap. xxxiii. sect. 8. that Herod lived after he had ordered Antipater to be slain 5 days ; this is by himself interpreted, Antiq. B. XVII, chap. viii, sect. 1. that he died on the fifth day afterward. So also, what is in this book, chap. xiii. sect. 1. after two years, is, Antiq. B. XIV. chap. xiii. sect. 3. on the second year. And Dean Aldrich here notes, that this way of speaking is familiar in Josephus.

them an hundred and fifty drachmæ of silver, and a great deal more to their commanders, and sent them into their winter quarters. He also sent to his youngest brother, Pheroras,

to take care of a good market for them, where they might · buy themselves provisions, and to build a wall about Alexandrium ; who took care of both those injunctions accordingly.

4. In the mean time Antony abode at Athens, while Ventidius called for Silo and Herod to come to the war against the Parthians, but ordered them first to settle the affairs of Judea : so Herod willingly dismissed Silo to go to Ventidius, but be made an expedition himself against those that lay in the caves. Now these caves were in the precipices of craggy mountains, and could not be come at from any side, since they had only some winding path-ways very narrow, by which they got up to them; but the rock that lay on their front had beneath it valleys of a vast depth, and of an almost perpendicular declivity; insomuch, that the king was doubtful for a long time what to do, by reason of a kind of impossibility there was of attacking the place. Yet did he at length make use of a contrivance that was subject to the utmost hazard; for he let down the most hardy of his men ir chests, and set them at the mouths of the dens. Now these men slew the robbers and their families, and when they made resistance, they sent in fire upon them (and burnt them]; and as Herod was desirous of saving some of them, he had proclamation made that they should come and deliver themselves up to him; but not one of them came willingly to bim, and of those that were compelled to come, many preferred death to captivity. And here a certain old man, the father of seven children, whose children, together with their mother, desired him to give them leave to go out, upon the assurance and righthand that was offered them, slew them after the following manner: He ordered every one of them to go out, while he stood himself at the cave's mouth, and slew that son of his perpetually who went out. Herod was near enough to see this sight, and his bowels of compassion were moved at it, and he stretched out his right-hand to the old man, and besought him to spare his children; yet did not he relent at all upon what he said, but over and above reproached Herod on the lowness of his descent, and slew his wife, as well as his children; and when he had thrown their dead bodies down the precipice, he at last threw himself down after them.

5. By this means Herod subdued these caves, and the robbers that were in them. He then left there a part of his army, as many as he thought sufficient to prevent any sedition, and made Ptolemy their general, and returned to Samaria; he led also with him three thousand armed footmen, and six hundred horsemen, against Antigonus. Now here, those that used to raise tumults in Galilee, having liberty so to do upon his departure, fell unexpectedly upon Ptolemy, the general of his forces, and slew him : they also laid the country waste, and then retired to the bogs, and to places not easily to be found. But when Herod was informed of this insurrection, he came to the assistance of the country immediately, and destroyed a great number of the seditious, and raised the sieges of all those fortresses they had besieged; he also exacted the tribute of an hundred talents of his enemies, as a penalty for the mutations they had made in the country.

6. By this time the Parthians being already driven out of the country, and Pacorus slain, Ventidius, by Antony's command, sent a thousand borsemen, and two legions, as ausiliaries to Herod, against Antigonus. Now Antigonus besought Macheras, who was their general, by letter, to come to his assistance, and made a great many mournful complaints about Herod's violence, and about the injuries he did to the kingdom: and promised to give him money for such his assistance: but he complied not with his invitation to betray bis trust; for he did not contemn him that sent him, especially while Herod gave him more money [than the other offered.] So he pretended friendship to Antigonus, but came as a spy to discover his affairs ; although he did not herein comply with Herod, who dissuaded him from so doing. But Antigonus perceived what his intentions were before-hand, and excluded him out of the city, and defended himself against hiin, as against an enemy from the walls ; till Macheras was ashamed of what he had done, and retired to Emmaus to Herod; and, as he was in a rage at his disappointment, he slew all the Jews whom he met with, without sparing those that were for Herod, but using them all as if they were for Antigonus.

7. Hereupon Herod was very angry at him, and was going to fight against Macheras as his enemy; but he restrained his indignation, and marched to Antony, to accuse Macheras of mal-administration. But Macheras was made sensible of his offences, and followed after the king immediately, and earnestly begged and obtained that he would be reconciled to him. However, Herod did not desist from his resolution of going to Antony; but when he heard that he was besieging * Samosata with a great army, which is a strong city near to Euphrates, he made the greater haste; as observing that this was a proper opportunity for shewing at once his courage,

Bucomply with

ne enemy fromcity, and delions were be doing

* This Samosata, the metropolis of Commagena, is well known from its coins, as Spanheim here assures us. Dean Aldrich also confirms what Josephus here notes, that Herod was a great means of taking the eity by Antony, and that from Plutarch and Dio.

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