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“ If they be at any time bunting, and he says nothing, he “ gives offence; and if he commends any body, they take it “ in way of jest : that they always find their father unmerci" fully severe, and to have no natural affection for any of them 66 but for Antipater ; on which accounts, if his plot does not

take, he is very willing to die ; but that in case he kills his 6 father, he hath sufficient opportunities for saving himself. " In the first place, he hath Archelaus, his father-in-law, to “ whom he can easily fly; and in the next place, he hath “ Cæsar who hath never known Herod's character to this day ; “ for that he shall not appear then before him with that dread “ he used to do, when his father was there to terrify him; and " that he will not then produce the accusations that concerned 66 himself alone, but would, in the first place, openly insist ." on the calamities of their nation, and how they are taxed to “ death, and in what ways of luxury and wicked practices " that wealth is spent, which was gotten by bloodshed; what “ sort of persons they are that get our riches; and to whom " those cities belong upon whom he bestows his favours : " that he would have inquiry made what became of his “ grand-father (Hyrcanus) and his mother [Mariamne]; and 66 would openly proclaim the gross wickedness that was in " the kingdom ; on which accounts he should not be deem" ed a parricide.”

3. When Eurycles had made this portentous speech, he greatly commended Antipater, as the only child that had an affection for his father, and on that account was an impediment to the other's plot against him. Hereupon the king, who had hardly repressed his anger upon the former accusations, was exasperated to an incurable degree. At which time Antipater took another occasion to send in other persons to his father to accuse his brethren, and to tell bim, that they had privately discoursed with Jucundus and Tyrannus, who had once been masters of the horse to the king, but for some offences had been put out of that honourable employment. Herod was in a very great rage at these informations, and presently ordered those men to be tortured : yet did not they confess any thing of what the king had been informed: but a certain letter was produced, as written by Alexander to the governor of a castle, to desire him to receive him and Aristobulus into the castle when he had killed his father, and to give them weapons and what other assistance he could upon that occasion. Alexander said, that this letter was a forgery of Diophantus's. This Diophantus was the king's secretary, a bold man, and cunning in counterfeiting any one's hand; and after he had counterfeited a great number, he was at last put to death for it. Herod did also order the governor of the castle to be tortured, but got nothing out of bim of whať the accusation suggested.

4. However, although Herod found the proofs too weak, he gave order to have his sons kept in custody; for till now they had been at liberty. He also called that pest of his family, and forger of all this vile accusation, Eurycles, his saviour, and his benefactor, and gave him a reward of fifty talents. Upon which he prevented any accurate accounts that could corne of what he had done, by going immediately into Cappadocia ; and there he got money of Archelaus, having the impudence to pretend, that he had reconciled Herod to Alexander. He thence passed over into Greece, and used what he had thus wickedly gotten to the like wicked purposes. Accordingly he was twice accused before Cæsar, that he had filled Achaia with sedition, and had plundered its cities; and so he was sent into banishment. And thus was he punished for what wicked actions he had been guilty of about Aristobulus and Alexander. '

5. But it will be now worth while to put Euaratus of Cos in opposition to this Spartan ; for as he was one of Alexander's most intimate friends, and came to him in his travels, at the same time that Eurycles came, so the king put the ques. tion to him, whether those things of which Alexander was accused were true ? He assured him upon nath, that he had never heard any such things from the young men : yet did this testimony avail nothing for the clearing those miserable creatures ; for Herod was only disposed and most ready to hearken to what made against them; and every one was most agreeable to him, that would believe they were guilty, and shewed their indignation at them.


Herod, by Cæsar's direction, accuses his sons at Berytus.

They are not produced before the court, but yet are condemned : and in a little time they are sent to Sebaste, and strangled there.

§ 1. Moreover, Salome exasperated Herod's cruelty against his sons; for Aristobulus was desirous to bring her, who was his mother-in-law and his aunt, into the like dangers with themselves; so he sent to her to take care of her own safety, and told her, that the king was preparing to put her to death, on account of the accusation that was laid against her, as if, when she formerly endeavoured to marry herself to Sylleus the Arabian, she had discovered the king's grand secrets to him, who was the king's enemy: and this it


was that came as the last storm, and entirely sunk the young men, when they were in great danger before. For Salome came running to the king, and informed him of wbat admonition had been given her; whereupon he could bear no longer, but commanded both the young men to be bound, and kept the one asunder from the other. He also sent Vo. lumnius, the general of his army, to Cæsar immediately, as also his friend Olympus with bim, who carried the inforına. tions in writing along with them. Now as soon as these had sailed to Rome, and delivered the king's letters to Cæsar, Cæsar was mightily troubled at the case of the young men ; yet did not be think he ought to take the power from the father of condemping his sons : so he wrote back to him, and appointed hiin to have the power over his sons; but said witbal, That “ he would do well to make an examination “ into this matter of the plot laid against him, in a public ". court; and to take for bis assessors his own kindred, and " the governors of the province : and if those sons be found “ guilty, to put them to death; but if they appear to have “ thought of no more than flying away from him, that he u should moderate their punishment.”

2. With these directions Herod complied, and came to Berytus, where Cæsar had ordered the court to be assembled, and got the judicature together. The presidents sat first, as Cæsar's letters had appointed, who were Saturninus, and Pedanius, and their lieutenants that were with them, with whom was the procurator Volumnius also; next to them sat the king's kinsmen and friends, with Salome also, and Pheroras; after whom sat the principal men of all Syria, excepting Archelaus; for Herod had a suspicion of him, because he was Alexander's father-in-law. Yet did not he produce his sons in open court; and this was done very cunningly ; for he knew well enough, that had they but appeared only, they would certainly have been pitied; and if withal they had been suffered to speak, Alexander would easily have answered what they were accused of; but they were in custody at Platane, a village of the Sidonians.

3. So the king got up and inveighed against his sons, as if they were present; and as for that part of the accusation thai they had plotted against him, he urged it but faintly, because he was destitute of proofs; but he insisted before the assessors on the reproaches, and jests, and injurious carriage, and ten thousand the like offences against him, which were heavier than death itself; and when nobody contradicted him, he moved them to pity his case, as though he had been condemned himself, now he had gained a bitter victory against his sons. So he asked every one's sentence, wbich sentence was first of all given by Saturninus, and was this, That he condemned the young men, but not to death; for that it was not fit for hiin, who bad three sons of his own now present, to give his vote for the destruction of the sons of another. The two lieutenants also gave the like vote; some others there were also who followed their example; but Volumnius began to vote on the more melancholy side, and all those that came after him condemned the young men to die, some out of flattery, and some out of hatred to Herod ; but none out of indignation at their crimes. And now all Syria and Judea was in great expectation, and waited for the last act of this tragedy; yet did nobody suppose that Herod would be so, barbarous as to murder his children : however, he carried them away to Tyre, and thence sailed to Cæsarea, and deliberated with himself what sort of death the young men should suffer,

4. Now, there was a certain old soldier of the king's, whose name was Tero, who had a son that was very familiar with and a friend to Alexander, and who himself particularly loved the young men. This soldier was in a manner distracted out of the excess of the indignation he had at what was doing; and at first he cried out aloud, as he went about, " That justice was trampled under foot; that truth was pe“ rished, and nature confounded; and that the life of man “ was full of iniquity,” and every thing else that passion could suggest to a man who spared not his own life ; and at last he ventured to go to the king, and said, “ Truly, I think 46 thou art a most miserable man, when thou hearkenest to « most wicked wretches, against those that ought to be dear66 est to thee; since thou hast frequently resolved that Phe6 roras and Salome should be put to death, and yet believest " them against thy sons; while these, by cutting off the suc« cession of thine own sons, leave, all wholly to Antipater, " and thereby chuse to have thee such a king as may be tho" roughly in their own power. However, consider whether “ this death of Antipater's brethren will not make him hated C by the soldiers ; for there is no body but commiserates the " the young men, and of the captains a great many shew 66 their indignation at it openly.” Upon his saying this, he named those that had such indignation ; but the king ordered those men, with Tero himself, and his son, to be seized upon immediately.

5. At which time there was a certain barber, whose name was Trypho. This man leaped out from among the people, in a kind of madness, and accused himself, and said, “ This, 66 Tero endeavoured to persuade me also to cut thy throat “ with my razor, when I trimmed thee, and promised that

the barbarod heard thaive me laro

« Alexander should give me large presents for so doing.” When Herod heard this, he examined Tero, with his son and the barber, by the torture; but as the others denied the accusations, and he said nothing farther, Herod gave order that Tero should be racked more severely ; but his son, out of pity to his father, promised to discover the whole to the king, if he would grant that his father should be no longer tortured ;] when he had agreed to this, he said, That “ his father, .66 at the persuasion of Alexander, had an intention to kill “ him.” Now some said this was forged, in order to free his father from his torments, and some said it was true.

6. And now Herod accused the captains, and Tero, in an assembly of the people, and brought the people together in a body against them; and accordingly there were they put to death, together with [Trypho] the barber; they were killed by the pieces of wood, and the stones that were thrown at them. He also sent his sons to Sebaste, a city not far from Cæsarea, and ordered them to be there strangled ; and as #hat he had ordered was executed immediately, so he commanded that their dead bodies should be brought to the fortress Alexandrium, to be buried with Alexander, their grandfather by the mother's side. And this was the end of Alexander and Aristobulus.


How Antipater is hated of all men ; and how the king espouses

the sons of those thut had been slain to his kindred; but that Antipater made him change them for other women. Of Herod's marriages, and childa-en.

§ 1. But an intolerable hatred fell upon Antipater from the nation, though he had now an indisputable title to the succession ; because they all knew that he was the person who contrived all the calumnies against his brethren. However he began to be in a terrible fear, as he saw the posterity of those that had been slain growing up; for Alexander had two sons by Glaphyra, Tigranes and Alexander; and Aristobulus had Herod and Agrippa, and Aristobulus, his sons ; with Herodias and Mariamne, his daughters; and all by Bernice, Salome's daughter : as for Glaphyra, Herod, as soon as he had killed Alexander, sent her back, together with her portion to Cappadocia. He married Bernice, Aristobulus's daughter, to Antipater's uncle by his mother, and it was Antipater, who, in order to reconcile her to him, when she had been at variance with him, contrived this match; he also got into Pheroras's favour, and into the favour of Cæsar's friends,

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