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by presents, and other ways of obsequiousness, and sent no small sums of money to Rome : Saturninus also, and his friends in Syria, were all well replenished with the presents he made them; yet the more he gave, the more he was hated, as not making these presents out of generosity, but spending his money out of fear. Accordingly it so fell out, that the receivers bore him no more good will than before, but that those to whom he gave nothing were bis more bitter enemies. However, he bestowed his money every day more and more profusely, on observing that, contrary to his expectations, the king was taking care about the orphans, and discovering at the same time bis repentance for killing their fathers, by his commiseration of those that sprang from thein.

2. Accordingly Herod got together his kindred and friends, and set before them the children, and with his eyes full of tears, said thus to them; “ It was an unlucky fate that took « away from ine these childrens' fathers, which children are " recommended to me by that natural commiseration which “ their orphan condition requires ; however, I will endeavour " though I have been a most unfortunate father, to appear a

better grandfather, and to leave these children such cura“ tors after myself as are dearest to me. I therefore betroth " thy daughter, Pheroras, to the elder of these brethren, the “ children of Alexander, that thou mayest be obliged to take 6. care of them. I also betroth to thy son Antipater, the “ daughter of Aristobulus; be thou therefore a father to " that orphan, and my son Herod (Philip) shall have her sister, " whose grandfather, by the mother's side, was high-priest. “ And let every one that loves me be of my sentiments in me o these dispositions, which none that hath an affection for “ me will abrogate. And I pray God that he will join these “ children together in marriage to the advantage of my king“ dom, and of my posterity, and may be look down with eyes " more serene upon them than he looked upon their fathers.”

3. While he spake these words, he wept, and joined the childrens' right hands together; after which he embraced them every one after an affectionate manner, and dismissed the assembly. Upon this, Antipater was in great disorder immediately, and lamented publicly at what was done ; for he supposed, that this dignity, which was conferred on these orphans, was for his own destruction, even in his father's lifetime; and that he should run another risk of losing the government, if Alexander's sons shouid have both Archelaus (a king) and Pheroras, a tetrarch to support them. He also considered how he was himself hated by the nation, and how they pitied these orphans; how great affection the Jews bare to those brethren of his when they were alive, and how glad

to as to have boto keep the gor persons ; for image of a king

abuse[intended the royal famibt him earnestind Pheror

dy they remembered them now they had perished by bis means. So he resolved by all the ways possible to get these espousals dissolved.

4. Now he was afraid of going subtilly about this matter with his father, who was hard to be pleased, and was presently moved upon the least suspicion : so he ventured to go to him directly, and to beg of bim before his face, not to deprive him of that dignity which he had been pleased to bestow opon him, and that he might not have the bare name of a king, while the power was in other persons; for that he should never be able to keep the government, if Alexander's son was to have both his grandfather Archelaus and Pheroras, for his curators; and be besought him earnestly, since there were so many of the royal family alive, that he would change those intended] marriages. Now the king had * nine wives, and children by seven of them; Antipater was himself born of Doris, and Herod (Philip] of Mariamne, the high priest's daughter; Antipas also, and Archelaus, were by Malthace, the Samaritan; as was his daughter Olympias, which his brother Joseph's + son had married ; by Cleopatra of Jerusalein he had Herod and Philip, and by Pallas, Phasaelus; he had also two daughters, Roxane and Salome, the une by Phedra, and the other by Elpis; he had also two wives that had no children, the one his first cousin, and the other his niece; and besides these, he had two daughters, the sisters of Alexander and Aristobulus, by Mariamne. Since, therefore, the royal family was so numerous, Antipater prayed him to change these [intended] marriages.

5. When the king perceived what disposition he was in towards these orphans, he was angry at it, and a suspicion came into his mind, as to those sons whom he had put to death, whether that had not been brought about by the false tales of Antipater; so at that time he made Antipater a long and a peevish answer, and bid him be gone. Yet he afterwards prevailed upon cunningly by his flatteries, and changed the marriages; he inarried Aristobulus's daughter to him, and his son to Pheroras's daughter.

6. Now one may learn in this instance how very much

* Dean Aldrich takes notice here, that these nine wives of Herod were alive at the same tiine, and that if the celebrated Mariamne, who was now dead, be reckoned, those wives were in all ten. [Yet it is remarkable that he had no more than fifteen children by them all.]

+ To prevent confusion, it may not be amiss, with Dean Aldrich, to distinguish between four Josephs in the history of Herod. 1. Joseph, Herod's uncle, and the (second] husband of his sister Salome, slain by Herod on account of Mariamne. 2. Joseph, Herod's quætor, or treasurer, slain on the same account. 3. Joseph, Herod's brother, slain in battle against Antigonus. 4. Joseph, Herod's nephew, the husband of Olympias mentioned in this place.

this flattering Antipäter could do, even what Salome in the like circumstances could not do; for when she who was his sister, and who, by the means of Julia, Cesar's wife, earnestly desired leave to be married in Sylleus the Arabian, Herod swore he would esteem her his bitter enemy, unless she would leave off that project; he also caused her, against her own consent, to be married to Alexas, a friend of his, and that one of her daughters should be married to Alexas's son, and the other to Antipater's uncle by the mother's side. And for the daughters the king had by Marianne, the one was married to Antipater, his sister's son, and the other to his brother's son, Phasaleus.


Antipater becomes intolerable. He is sent to Rome, and carries Herod's testament with him. Pheroras leaves his brother, thut he inay keep his wife. He dies at home.

§ 1. Now when Antipater had cut off the hopes of the orphans, and bad contracted such affinities as would be most for his own advantage, he proceeded briskly, as having a certain expectation of the kingdom, and as he had now assurance added to his wickedness, he became intolerable ; for not being able to avoid the liatred of all people, he built his secùrity upon the terror he struck into them. Pheroras also assisted him in his designs, looking upon him as already fixed in the kingdom. There was also a company of women in the court, which excited new disturbances; for Pheroras's wife, together with her mother and sister, as also Antipater's mother, grew very impudent in the palace. She also was so insolent as to affront the king's * two daughters, on which account the king hated her to a great degree; yet although these women were hated by him, they doinineered over others; there was only Salome who opposed their good agreement, and informed the king of their meetings, as not being for the advantage of his affairs. And when those women knew what calamities she had raised against them, and how much Herod was displeased, they left off their public meetings, and friendly entertainments of one another; nay, on the contrary, they pretended to quarrel one with another when the king was within hearing. The like dissimulation did Antipater make use of; and when matters were public, hè opposed Pheroras; but still they had private cabals, and

* These daughters of Herod, whom Pheroras's wife affronted, were Salome and Roxane, two virgins, who were born to him of his two wives, Elpide and Phedra, See Herod's genealgoy, Antiq. B. XVII. ch. i. $ 3.

merry meetings in the night time ; nor did the observation of others do any more than confirm their mutual agreement.

However, Salome knew every thing, they did, and told every · thing to Herod.

2. But he was inflamed with anger at them, and chiefly at Pheroras's wife ; for Salome had principally accused her. So he got an assembly of his friends and kindred together, and there accused this woman of many things, and particularly of the affronts she had offered his daughters ; and that she had supplied the Pharisees with money, by way of rewards for what they had done against him, and had procured his brother to become his enemy, by giving him love potions. At length be turned his speech to Pheroras, and told him, That • he would give him bis choice of these two things, whether as he would keep in with his brother, or with his wife.” And when Pheroras said, that he would die * rather than forsake

his wife, Herod not knowing what to do farther in that mat; 'ter, turned his speech to Antipater, and charged him to have

no intercourse either with Pheroras's wife or with Pheroras himself, or with any one belonging to her. Now though Antipater did not transgress that his injunction publicly, yet did he in secret come to their night-meeting; and because he was afraid that Salome observed what he did, he procured, by the means of his Italian friends, that he might go and live at Rome; for when they wrote that it was proper for Antipater to be sent to Cæsar for some time, Herod made no delay, but sent him, and that with a splendid attendance, and a great deal of money, and gave him his testament to carry with him, wherein Antipater had the kingdom bequeathed to him, and wherein Herod was named for Antipater's successor; that Herod, I mean, who was the son of Mariamne, the high priest's daughter.

3. Sylleus also, the Arabian sailed to Rome, without any regard to Cæsar's injunctions, and this in order to oppose Antipater with all his might, as to that law-suit which Nicolaus bad with him before. This Sylleus had also a great contest with Aretas, his own king; for he had slain many others of Aretas's friends, and particularly Sohemus, the most potent

* This strange obstinacy of Pheroras, in retaining his wife, who was one of a low family, and refusing to marry one nearly related to Herod, though he so earnestly desired it, as also that wife's admission to the counsels of the other great court ladies, together with Herod's own importunity as to Pheroras's divorce and other marriage, all so remarkable here, or in the Antiq. B. XVII. ch, ii. sect. 4. and ch, iii, sect. 3. cannot be well accounted for, but on the supposal that Pheroras believed, and Herod suspected, that the Pharisees prediction, as if the crown of Judea should be translated from Herod to Pheroras's posterity; and that most probably to Pheroras's posterity by this his wife, also would prove true. See Antig. B. XVII. ch.Si. sect. 4. and ch. iii. sect. 1.

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man in the city Petra. Moreover, he had prevailed with Phabatus, who was Herod's steward, by giving him a great sum of money, to assist him against Herod; but when Herod gave him more, he induced him to leave Sylleus, and by his means he demanded of him all that Cæsar had required of him to pay. But when Sylleus paid nothing of what he was to pay, and did also accuse Phabatus to Cæsar, and said, that he was not a steward for Cæsar's advantage, but for Herod's, Phabatus was angry at him on that account, but was still in very great esteem with Herod, and discovered Sylleus's grand secrets, and told the king that Sylleus had corrupted Corinthus, one of the guards of his body, by bribing him, and of whom he must therefore have a care. Accordingly the king complied; for this Corinthus, though he were brought up in Herod's kingdom, yet was he by birth an Arabian : so the king ordered him to be taken up immediately; and not only him, but two other Arabians who were caught with him ; the one of them was Sylleus's friend, the other the head of a tribe. These last being put to the torture, confessed that they had prevailed with Corinthus, for a large sum of money, to kill Herod ; and when they had been farther examined before Saturninus, the president of Syria, they were sent to Rome.

4. However, Herod did not leave off importuning Pheroras, but proceeded to force him to put away his wife; yet could he not devise any way by which he could bring the woman herself to punishment, although he had many causes of hatred to her ; till at length he was in such great uneasi. ness at her, that he cast both her and his brother out of his kingdom. Pheroras took this injury very patiently, and went away into his own tetrarchy [Perea beyond Jordan and sware that there should be but one end put to his flight, and that should be Herod's death ; and that he would never return while he was alive. Nor indeed would he return when his brother was sick, although he earnestly sent for him to come to him, because he had a mind to leave some injunctions with him before he died; but Herod unexpectedly recovered. A little afterward Pheroras himself fell sick, when Herod shewed great moderation ; for be came to him, and pitied his case, and took care of him ; but his affection for bim did him no good, for Pheroras died a little afterward. Now though Herod had so great an affection for him to the last day of his life, yet was a report spread abroad that he had killed him by poison. However, he took care to have his dead body carried to Jerusalem, and appointed a very great mourning to the whole nation for him, and bestowed a

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