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in this lying story, and in a bold way of talking, he enquired about Aristobulus, and asked what became of him, who [it seems] was stolen away together with bim, and for what reason it was that he did not come along with him, and endeavour to recover that dominion which was due to his high birth also? And when he said, Tbat “ he had been left in " the isle of Crete, for fear of the dangers of the sea, that in “ case any accident should come to himself, the posterity of “ Mariamne might not utterly perish, but that Aristobulus “ might survive, and punish those that laid such treacherous “ designs against them.” And when he persevered in his af. firmations, and the author of the imposture agreed in supporting it, Cæsar took the young man by himself, and said to him, “ If thou wilt not impose upon me, thou shalt 66 have this for thy reward, that thou shalt escape with thy 66 life; tell me then who thou art ? and who it was that had 66 boldness enough to contrive such a cheat as this ? For this 6 contrivance is too considerable a piece of villany to be un" dertaken by one of thy age.” Accordingly, because he had no other way to take, he told Cæsar the contrivance, and after what manner, and by whom it was laid together. So Cæsar, upon observing the spurious Alexander to be a strong active man, and fit to work with his bands, that he miglit not break his promise to him, put him among those that were to row among the mariners; but slew him that induced him to do what he had done; for as for the people of Melos, he thought them sufficiently punished, in having thrown away so much of their money upon this spurious Alexander. And such was the ignominious conclusion of this bold contrivance about the spurious Alexander,
How Archelaus, upon a second accusation, was banished to
§ 1. W hen Archelaus was entered on his ethnarchy, and was come into Judea, he accused Joazar, the son of Bethus, of assisting the seditious, and took away the high-priesthood. from him, and put Eleazar his brother in his place. He also magnificently rebuilt the royal palace that had been at Jericho, and he diverted half the water with which the village of Neara used to be watered, and drew off that water into the plain to water those palm trees which he had there planted: he also built a village, and put his own name upon it, and called it Archeleis. Moreover, he * transgressed the law of
in Spanheim seasonably observes here, that it was forbidden the Jews to marry, our fathers, and married Glaphyra, the daughter of Archelaus, who had been the wife of his brother Alexander, which Alexander had children by her, while it was a thing detest-able among the Jews, to marry the brother's wife; nor did this Eleazar abide long in the bigh-priesthood, Jesus, the son of Sie, being put in his room while he was still living.
2. But in the tenth year of Archelaus's government, both his brethren, and the principal men of Judea and Samaria, not being able to bear his barbarous and tyrannical usage of them, accused him before Cæsar, and that especially because -they knew he had broken the commands of Cæsar, wbich obliged him to behave himself with moderation among them. Whereupon Cæsar, when he heard it, was very angry, and called for Archelaus's steward, who took care of his affairs at Rome, and whose name was Archelaus also, and thinking it beneath him to write to Archelaus, he bid bim sail away as
soon as possible, and bring him to us; so the man made haste . in bis voyage, and when he came into Judea he found Archelaus feasting with his friends ; so he told him what Cæsar hád sent him about, and hastened him away. And when he was come [to Rome], Cæsar, upou hearing what certain accusers of his had to say, and what reply he could make, both banish. ed him, and appointed Vienna a city of Gaul, to be the place of bis habitation, and took his money away from him. · 3. Now before Archelaus was gone up ito Rome upon this 'message, he related this dream to his friends, that " he sař " ears of corn, in number ten, full of wheat perfectly ripe, '" which ears, as it seemed to him, were devoured by oxen.” And when he was awake and gotten up, because the vision appeared to be of great importance to him, he sent for the diviners, whose study was employed about dreams. And while some were of one opinion, and some of another, (for all their interpretations did not agree,) Simon, a man of the sect of the Essens, desired leave to speak his mind freely, and said, that " the vision denoted a change in the affairs of Ar" chelaus, and that not for the better; that oxen, because " that animal takes uneasy pains in his labours, denoted af. “.flictions, and indeed denoted farther, a change of affairs; " because that land which is ploughed by oxen cannot remain 166 in its former state: and that the ears of corn being ten, de“ termined the like number of years, because an ear of corn
grows in one year; and that the time of Archelaus's go66 vernment was over.” And thus did this man expound the dream. Now, on the fifth day after this dream came first to Archelaus, the other Archelaus, that was sent to Judea by Cæsar to call him away, came thither also.
their brother's wife, when she had children by her first husband, and that Zono. ras (cites, or] interprets the clause before us accordingly.
4. The like accident befel Glaphyra his wife, who was the daughter of king Archelaus, who, as I said before, was married while she was a virgin, to Alexander the son of Herod, and brother of Archelaus; but since it fell out so that Alexander was slain by his father, she was married to Juba, the king of Lydia, and when he was dead, and she lived in widowhood in Cappadocia with her father, Archelaus divorced his former wife Mariamne, and married her, so great was bis affection for this Glapbyra; who during her marriage to him saw the following dream. She thought " she saw Alexander “ standing by her, at which she rejoiced, and embraced him 56 with great affection; but that he complained of her, and « said, O Glaphyra! thou provest that saying to be true, 66. which assures us, that women are not to be trusted. Didst < not thou pledge thy faith to me? and wast not thou married “ to me when thou wast a virgin ? and had we not children " between us? Yet hast thou forgotten the affection I bare 56 to thee out of a desire of a second husband. Nor bast « thou been satisfied with that injury thou didst me, but ç thou hast been so bold as to procure thee a third husband 66 to lie by thee, and in an indecent and impudent manner ¢ hast eptered into my house, and hast been married to Ar66 chelaus, thy husband, and my brother. However, I will « not forget thy former kind affection for me, but will set " thee free from every such reproachful action, and cause 56 thee to be mine again, as thou once wast.” When she had related this to her female.companions, in a few days time she departed this life.
5. Now I did not think these histories improper for the present discourse, both because my discourse now is concern. ing kings, and otherwise also on account of the advantage bence to be drawn, as well for the confirmation of the immortality of the soul, as of the providence of God over human affairs, I thought them fit to be set down; but if any one does not believe such relations, let himn indeed enjoy his own opinion, but let him not hinder another, that would thereby encourage himself in virtue. So Archelaus's country was laid to the province of Syria; and Cyrenius, one that had been consul, was sent by Cæsar to take an account of people's effects in Syria, and to sell the house of Archelaus.
CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF THIRTY-TWO YEARS.
FROM THE BANISHMENT OF ARCHELAUS, TO THE DEPARTURE
OF THE JEWS FROM BABYLON.
How Cyrenius was sent by Cæsar to make a taxation of Syria, and Iudeu ; and how Coponius was sent to be procurator of Judea; concerning Judas of Galilee, and concerning the
sects that were among the Jews. § 1. Now Cyrenius, a Roman senator, and one who had gone through other magistracies, and had passed through them till he had been consul, and one who, on other accounts, was of great diguity, came at this time into Syria, with a few others, being sent by Cæsar to be a judge of that nation, and to take an account of their substance : Coponius also, a man of the equestrian order, was sent together with him, to have the supreme power over the Jews. Moreover, Cyrenius came himself into Judea, which was now added to the province of Syria, to take an account of their substance, and to dispose of Archelaus's money : but the Jews, although at the beginning they took the report of a taxation beinously, yet did they leave off any farther opposition to it, by the persuasion of Joazar, who was the son of Boethus, and highpriest ; so they being over persuaded by Joazar's words, gave an account of their estates, without any dispute about it. Yet was there one Judas *, a Gaulonite, of a city whose name
* Since St Luke once, Acts y. 37. and Josephus four several times, once here, sect. 6. and B. XX. ch. v. sect. 2. Vol. III. of the War, B. II. ch. vjïi sect. I, and ch. xvii. sect. 8. Vol. III. calls this Judas, who was the pestilent author of that seditious doctrine and temper which brought the Jewish nation to utter destruc tion, a Galilean, but here, sect 1. Josephus calls him a Gaulonite, of the city Gamala. It is a great question where this Judas was born, whether in Galilee on the west side, or in Gaulonitis, on the east side of the river Jordan: while in the place just now cited out of the Antiquitjes, B. XX. ch. v. sect. 2. Vol. 111. he is not only called a Galilean, but it is added to his story, as I have signified in the books that go before these, as if he had still called him a Galilean in those Antiquities before, as well as in that particular place, as Dean Aldrich obserres, On the War, B. II. ch. viji, sect. 1. Vol. III. Nor can ove well imagine why he should here call him a Gaulonite, when in the 6th section following here, as well as twice Of the War, he still calls him a Galilean. As for the city of Gamala, Whence this Judas, was derived, it determines ņothing, since there were two of
was Gamala, who taking with him Saddouk *, a Pharisee, became zealous to draw them to a revolt, who both said, that this taxation was no better than an introduction to slavery, and exhorted the nation to assert their liberty; as if they could procure them happiness and security for what they possessed, and an assured enjoyment of a still greater good, which was that of the honour and glory they would thereby acquire for magnanimity. They also said, that God would not otherwise be assisting to them, than upon their joining with one another in such counsels as might be successful, and for their own advantage; and this especially, if they would set about great exploits, and not grow weary in executing the same; so men received what they said with pleasure, and this bold attempt proceeded to a great heiglit. All sorts of misfortunes also sprang from these men, and the nation was infected with this doctrine to an incredible degree; one violent war came upon us after another, and we lost our friends which used to alleviate our pains; there were also very great robberies and murders of our principal men. This was done in pretence indeed for the public welfare, but in reality from the hopes of gain tu themselves; whence arose seditions, and from them murders of men, which sometimes fell on those of their own people, (by the madness of these men towards one another, while their desire was, that none of the adverse party might be left) and sometimes on their enemies; a famine also coming upon us reduced us to the last degree of despair, as did also the taking and demolishing of cities; nay, the sedition at last increased so high, that the very temple of God was burnt down by their enemies fire. Such were the consequences of this, that the customs of our fathers were altered, and such a change was made, as added a mighty weight toward bringing all to destruction, which these men occasioned by their thus conspiring together, for Judas and Sadducus t, who excited a fourth Philosophic sect among us, and had a great many followers therein, filled our civil government with tumults at present, and laid the foundations of our future miseries by this system of philosophy, which we were before unacquainted withal; concerning which, I will that name, the one in Gaulonitis, the other in Galilee. See Reland on the city or town of that naine.
* It seems not very improbable to me, that this Sadduc, the Pharisee, was the very same map of whom the Rabbins speak, as the unhappy but undesigning oc. casion of the impiety or infidelity of the Sadducees : nor perhaps had the men ! this name of Sadducees till this very time, though they were a distinct sect long before. See the note on B. XIII. ch. x. sect. 5. Vol. II. and Dean Prideaux, as there quoted; nor do we, that I know of, find the least footsteps of such impicty or infidelity of these Sadducees before this time, the Recognitions assuring us, that they began about the days of John the Baptist, B. I, ch. liv. Vol. 1.
+ See Note above.