« PreviousContinue »
engage her husband to do the same, since she saw how she alleviated these her husband's troubles ail she could, although she had not the like wealth to do it witbal. So they sent for him, and allotted himn Tiberias for his habitation, and appointed him some income of money for his maintenance, and made him a magistrate of that city, by way of honour tó bim. Yet did not Herod long continue in that resolution of supporting him, though even that support was not sufficient for him ; for às once they were at a feast at Tyre, and in their cups, and reproaches were cast upon one another, Agrippa thought that was not to be borne, while Herod hit him in the teeth with his poverty, and with his owing his necessary food to him. So he went to Flaccus, one that had been consul, and had been a very great friend to him at Rome formerly, and was now president of Syria.
3. Hereupon Flaccus received him kindly, and he lived with him. Flaccus had also with him there Aristobulus, who was indeed Agrippa's brother, but was at variance with him ; yet did not their enmity to one another hinder the friendsbip of Flaccus to thein both, but still they were honourably treated by him. However, Aristobulus did not abate of his ill. will to Agrippa, till at length he brought him into ill terms with Flaccus: the occasion of bringing on which estrange. ment was this : The Damascens were at difference with the Sidonians about their limits, and when Flaccus was about to hear the cause between them, they understood that Agrippa had a mighty influence upon him ; so they desired that he would be of their side, and for that favour promised him a great deal of money ; so he was zealous in assisting the Damascens as far as he was able. Now Aristobulus had gotten intelligence of this promise of money to him, and accused him to Flaccus of the same; and when, upon a thorough examination of the matter, it appeared plainly so to be, he rejected Agrippa out of the number of his friends. So he was reduced to the utmost necessity, and came to Ptolemais; and because he knew not where else to get a livelihood, he thought to sail to Italy; but as he was restrained from so doing by want of inoney, he desired Marsyas, who was his freed-man, to find some method for procuring him so much as he wanted for that purpose, by borrowing such a sum of some person or other. So Marsyas desired of Peter, who was the freedman of Bernice, Agrippa's mother, and by the right of her testament was bequeathed to Antonia, to lend him so much upon Agrippa's own bood and security ; but he accused Agrippa of having defrauded him of certain sumis of money, and so obliged Marsyas, when he made the bond of 20,000 Attic
drachmæ, to accept of 2500 drachme * less than what he desired, which the other allowed of, because he could not help it. Upon the receipt of this money, Agrippa came to Anthedon, and took shipping, and was going to set sail ; but Herennius Capito, who was the procurator of Jamnia, sent a band of soldiers to demand of him 300,000 drachmæ of silver, which were by him owing to Cæsar's treasury while he was at Rome, and so forced him to stay. He then pretended that he would do as he bid him ; but when night came on, he cut his cables, and went off, and sailed to Alexandria, where he desired Alexander the Alabarch † to lend him: 200,000 dracbmæ; but he said he would not lend it to him, but would not refuse it Cypros, as greatly astonished at ber affection to her husband, and at the other instances of her virtue, so sbe undertook to repay it. Accordingly Alexander paid them five talents at Alexandria, and promised to pay him the rest of that sum at Dicearchią [Puteoli]; and this he did out of the fear he was in that Agrippa would soon spend it. So this Cypros set her husband free, and dismissed him to go on with his navigation to Italy, while she and her children departed for Judea.
4. And now Agrippa was come to Puteoli, whence he wrote a letter to Tiberius Cæsar, who then lived at Capreæ, and told him, that he was come so far in order to wait on him, and to pay him a visit ; and desired that he would give him leave to come over to Capreæ ; so Tiberius made no difficulty, but , wrote to him in an obliging way in other respects, and withal told him, he was glad of his safe return, and desired him to come to Capreæ ; and when he was come, he did not fail to treat him as kindly as he had promised him in his letter to do. But the next day came a letter to Cæsar from Herennius Capito, to inform him, that Agrippa had borrowed 300,000 drachmæ, and not paid it at the time appointed ; but, when it was demanded of him, he ran away like a fugitive, out of the places under his government, and put it out of his power to get the money of him. When Cæsar had read this letter, he was much troubled at it, and gave order that Agrippa should be excluded from his presence, until he had paid that debt: upon wbich he was no way daunted at Cæsar's anger, but entreated Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius, who was afterwards Cæsar himself, to lend him those 300,000 drachmæ, that he might not be deprived of Tiberius's friendship; so, out of regard to the memory of Bernice his
* Spanheim observes, that we have here an instance of the Attic quantity of use money, which was the eighth part of the original seim, or 121 per cent. fur such is the proportion of 2500 to 20,000.
+ The governor of the Jews there.
mother, (for those two women were very familiar with one another,) and out of regard to his and Claudius's education together, she lent him the money; and, upon the payment of this debt, there was nothing to hinder Tiberius's friendship to him. After this, Tiberius Cæsar recommended to him his grandson,* and ordered that he should always accompany him when he went abroad. But upon Agrippa's kind reception by Antonia, he betook himself to pay his respects to Caius, who was her grandson, and in very high reputation by reason of the good-will they bare his father.t Now, there was one Thallus, a freed-man o: Cæsar, of whom he borrowed a million of drachmæ, and thence repaid Antonia the debt he owed her; and by spending the overplus in paying his court to Caius, became a person of great authority with him.
5. Now, as the friendship which Agrippa had for Caius was come to a great height, there happened some words to pass between them, as they once were in a chariot together, concerning Tiberius ; Agrippa praying [to God], (for they two sat by themselves), that " Tiberius might soon go off the “ stage, and leave the government to Caius, who was in every os respect more worthy of it.” Now Eutychus, who was Agrippa's freed-man, and drove his chariot, beard these words, and at that time said nothing of them ; but when Agrippa accused him of stealing some garments of his, (which was cer. tainly true), he ran away from him: but when he was caught, and brought before Piso, who was governor of the city, and the man was asked, why he ran away? he replied, that he had somewhat to say to Cæsar, that tended to his security and preservation': so Piso bound him, and sent him to Capreæ. But Tiberius, according to his usual custom, kept him still in bonds, being a delayer of affairs, if there ever was any other king or tyrant that was so; for he did not admit ambassadors quickly, and no successors were dispatched away to governors or procurators of the provinces, that had been formerly sent, unless they were dead; whence it was, that he was so negligent in hearing the causes of prisoners; insomuch, that when he was asked by his friends, what was the reason of his delay in such cases ? he said, That " he delayed to hear amco bassadors, lest, upon their quick dismission, other ambas. 66 sadors should be appointed, and return upon him; and so " he should bring trouble upon himself in their public recep. 66 tion and dismission : that he permitted those governors, 66 who had been sent once to their governments to stay there “ a great while], out of regard to the subjects that were un“ der them; for that all governors are naturally disposed to * Tiberius junior.
“ get as much as they can, and that those who are not to fix " there, but to stay a short time, and that at an uncertainty,
when they shall be turned out, do the more severely hurry " themselves on to fleece the people; but that, if their go« vernment be long continued to them, they are at last sa“ tiated with the spoils, as having gotten a vast deal, and so “ become at length less sharp in their pillaging; but that, if 66 successors are sent quickly, the poor subjects, who are ex- posed to them as a prey, will not be able to bear the new " ones, while they shall not have the same time allowed them, “ wherein their predecessors had filled themselves, and so rs grew more unconcerned about getting more; and this be" cause they are removed before they have had time [for “ their oppressions]. He gave them an example to shew his " meaning: A great number of flies came about the sore " places of a man that had been wounded; upon which one “ of the standers-by pitied the man's misfortune, and, think66 ing he was not able to drive those flies away himself, was “ going to drive them away for bim; but he prayed him to " let them alone; the other, by way of reply, asked him the " reason of such a preposterous proceeding, in preventing “ relief from his present misery ; to which he answered, If “ thou drivest these fies away, thou wilt hurt me worse, for, " as these are already full of my blood, they do not crowd " about me, for pain me so much as before, but are some6 times more remiss, while the fresh ones that come almost “ famished, and find me quite tired down already, will be my " destruction. For this cause, therefore, it is, that I am “ myself careful not to send such new governors perpetually " to those my subjects, who are already sufficiently harrassed " by many oppressions, as may, like these flies, farther dis" tress them; and so, besides their natural desire of gain, 6 may have this additional incitement to it, that they expect " to be suddenly deprived of that pleasure which they take " in it.” And, as a farther attestation to what I say of the dilatory nature of Tiberius, I appeal to this his practice itself; for, although he were emperor twenty-two years, he sent in all but two procurators to govern the nation of the Jews, Gratus, and his successor in the government, Pilate. Nor was he in one way of acting with respect to the Jews, and in another with respect to the rest of his subjects. He farther informed them, that even in the hearing of the causes of prisoners, he made such delays, “ because immediate “ death to those that must be condemned to die, would be an .“ alleviation of their present miseries, while those wicked « wretches have not deserved any such favour; but I do it,
" that, by being harrassed with the present calamity, they " may undergo greater misery.”
6. On this account it was, that Eutychus could not obtain an hearing, but was kept still in prison. However, some time afterward, Tiberius came from Capreæ to Tusculanum, which is about an hundred furlongs (from Rome. Agrippa then desired of Antonia, that she would procure an hearing for Eutychus, let the matter whereof he accused him prove what it would. Now Antonia was greatly esteemed by Tiberius on all accounts, from the dignity of her relation to him, who had been his brother Drusus's wife and from her eminent chastity ; * for though she were still a young woman, she continued in her widowhood, and refused all other inatches, although Augustus had enjoined her to be married to somebody else : yet did she all along preserve her reputation free from reproach. She had also been the greatest benefactress to Tiberius, when there was a very dangerous plot laid against him by Sejanus, a man who had been her husband's friend, and who had the greatest authority, because he was general of the army, and when many members of the se. nate, and many of the freed-men joined with him, and the soldiery was corrupted, and the plot was come to a great height. Now Sejanus had certainly gained his point, bad not Antonia's boldness been more wisely conducted ihan Sejanus's malice; for, when she had discovered his designs against Tiberius, she wrote him an exact account of the whole, and gave the letter to Pallas, the most faithful of her servants, and sent him to Capreæ to Tiberius, who, when he understood it, slew Sejanus and his confederaies ; so that Tiberius, who had her in great esteem before, now looked upon her with still greater respect, and depended upon her in all things. So, when Tiberius was desired by this Antonia to examine
* This high commendation of Antonia for marrying but once, given here, and supposed elsewhere, Antiq. B. XVII. ch. xiii. sect. 4. Vol. II. and this notwithstanding the strongest temptations, shews how honourable single marriages were both among the Jews and Romans, in the days of Josephus and of the apostles, and takes away much of that surprise which the modern Protestants have at those laws of the apostles, where no widows, but those who had been the wives of one husband only, are taken into the church-list, and no bisbops, priests, or deacons, are allowed to marry more than once, without leaving off to officiate as clergy men any longer. See Luke ii. 36. I Tim. v, 11, 12. iii. 2, 12. Tit. i. 6. Constitut. Apost. B. II. sect. 1, 2. B. VI. sect. 17. Can. B. XVII. Grot. in Loc. ii. 36. and Respons, ad Consult Cassand. p. 44. and Cotelet. in Constitut. B. VI. sect. 17. And note, that Tertullian owns this law, against second marriages of the clergy, had been once at least executed in his time; and heavily complains elsewhere, that the breach thereof had not been always punished by the Catholics, as it ought to have been. Jerom, speaking of the ill reputation of marrying twice, says, That no such person could be chosen into the clergy in bis days; which Augustine testifies also; and for Epiphanius, rather earlier, he is clear and full to the same purpose, and says, that law obtained over the whole Catholic church in his days; as the places in the forecited authors inform us.