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Eutycbus, he answered, “ If indeed Eutychas had falsely ac“ cused Agrippa in what he hath said of him, he hath had “ sufficient punishment by what I have done to him already; " but if, upon examination, the accusation appears to be s true, let Agrippa have a care, lest, out of desire of punish“ing his freed-man, he do not rather bring a punishment “ upon himself.” Now when Antonia told Agrippa of this, he was still much more pressing that the matter might be examined into; so Antonia, upon Agrippa's lying hard at her continually to beg this favour, took the following opportunity : as Tiberius once lay at his ease upon his sedan, and was carried about, and Caius her grandson and Agrippa were before him after dinner, she walked by the sedan, and desired him to call Eutychus, and have him examined ; to which he replied, “ () « Antonia, the gods are my witnesses, that I am induced to «c do what I am going to do, not by my own inclination, but 86 because I ain forced to it by thy prayers.” When he had said this, he ordered Macro, who succeeded Sejanus, to bring Eutychus to him; accordingly, without any delay, he was brought. Then Tiberius asked him, what he had to say against a man who had given him his liberty ? Upon which he said, “ () my lord, this ('ajus, and Agrippa with bim, were “ once riding in a chariot, when I sat at their feet, and among “ many other discourses that passed, Agrippa said to Caius, " () that the day would once come, when this old fellow will “ die, and name thee for the governor of the habitable earth! « for then this Tiberius, bis grandson would be no hindrance, “ but would be taken off by thee, and that earth would be “ happy, and I happy also.” Now Tiberius took these to be truly Agrippa's words, and bearing a grudge withal at Agrippa, because when he had commanded him to pay bis respects to Tiberius, his grandson, and the son of Drusus, Agrippa had not paid bim that respect, but disobeyed his comniands, and transferred all their regard to Caius; he said to Macro, “ Bind this man." But Macro not distinctly knowing which of them it was whom he bid him bind, and not expecting that he would have any such thing done to Agrippa, he forbore, and came to ask more distinctly what it was that he said ? But when Cæsar had gone round the hippodrome, he found Agrippa standing : “ For certain,” said he, “ Macro, this is the man I meant to have bound :" and when he still asked, “ Which of these is to be bound ?” he said, “ Agrippa." Upon which Agrippa betook himself to make supplication for himself, putting him in mind of his son, with whom he was brought up, and of Tiberius [his grandson) whom he had educated; but all to no purpose; for they led him about bound even in his purple garments. It


thy freedom ac of these my be for thy adv

was also very hot weather, and they had but little wine to their meal; so that he was very thirsty ; he was also in a sort of agony, and took this treatment of him heinously, as he therefore saw one of Caius's slaves, whose name was Thaumaustus, carrying some water in a vessel, he desired tbat he would let him drink; so the servant gave bim some water to drink, and he drank heartily, and said, “ Othou boy, this 166 service of thine to me will be for thy advantage ; for, if I " once get clear of tbese my bonds, I will soon procure thee • thy freedom of Cajus, who has not been wanting to minis! ter to me now I am in bonds, in the same manner as when 66 I was in my former state and dignity.” Nor did he deceive him in what he promised him, but made him amends for what he had now done; for, when afterward Agrippa was come to the kingdom, he took particular care of Thaunastus, and got him his liberty from Caius, and made him the steward over bis own estate ; and, when he died, he left him to Agrippa his son, and to Bernice his daughter, to minister to them in the same capacity. The man also grew old in that honourable post, and therein died. But all this happened a . good while later.

7. Now Agrippa stood in his bonds before the royal palace, and leaned on a certain tree for grief, with many others who were in bonds also; and as a certain bird sat upon the tree on which Agrippa leaned, (the Romans call this bird bubo), [an owl], one of those that were bound, a German by nation, saw him, and asked a soldier who that man in purple was? and when he was informed that his name was Agrippa, and that he was by nation a Jew, and one of the principal men of that nation, be asked leave of the soldier to whom he was bound,* to let him come nearer to him, to speak with him; for that he had a mind to enquire of him about some things relating to his country ; which liberty when he had obtained, and as he stood near him, he said thus to him by an interpreter, That “ this sudden change of thy condition, () young “ man, is grievous to thee, as bringing on thee a manifold .66 and very great adversity ; nor wilt thou believe me, when " I foretel how thou wilt get clear of this misery which thou 6 art now under, and how divine Providence will provide for “ thee. Know therefore fand I appeal to my own country66 gods, as well as to the gods of this place, who have awards6 ed these bonds to us), that all I am going to say about thy "s concerns, shall neither be said for favour nor bribery, noi " out of an endeavour to make thee cheerful without cause ;

* Dr. Hudson here takes notice, out of Seneca, Epistle V. that this was the custom of Tiberius, to couple the prisoner and the soldier that guarded him tegether in the same chain.

for such predictions, when they come to fail, make the 56 grief at last, and in earnest, more bitter than if the party " had never heard of any such thing. However, though I 66 run the hazard of my own self, I think it fit to declare to “ thee the prediction of the gods. It cannot be that thou 56 shouldest long continue in these bonds; but thou wilt soon “ be delivered from them, and wilt be promoted to the highr6 est dignity and power, and thou wilt be envied by all those " who now pity thy hard fortune; and thou wilt be happy “ till thy death, and wilt leave that thine happiness to the 66 children whom thou shalt have. But do thou remember, 66 when thou seest this bird again, that thou wilt then live 6 but five days longer. This event will be brought to pass 66 by that God who hath sent this bird hither to be a sign unto 66 thee. And I cannot but think it unjust to conceal from " thee what I foreknow concerning thee, that, by thy know" ing beforehand what happiness is coming upon thee, thou " mayest not regard thy present misfortunes. But, when " tbis happiness shall actually befall thee, do not forget what s misery I am in myself, but endeavour to deliver me.” So, when the German had said this, he made Agrippa laugh at him as much as he afterwards appeared worthy of admiration. But now Antonia took Agrippa's misfortune to heart; however, to speak to Tiberius on his behalf, she took to be a very difficult thing, and indeed quite impracticable, as to any hope of success : yet did she procure of Macro, that the sol. diers that kept him should be of a gentle nature, and that the centurion who was over them, and was to diet with him, should be of the same disposition, and that he might have leave to bathe himself every day, and that his freed-men and friends might come to him, and that other things that tended to ease him, might be indulged him. So his friend Silas came in to him, and two of his freed-men, Marsyas and Stechus, brought him such sorts of food as he was fond of, and indeed took great care of him; they also brought him garments, under pretence of selling them, and, when night came on, they laid them under bim; and the soldiers assisted them, as Macro had given them order to do beforehand. And this was Agrippa's condition for six months time, and in this case were his affairs.

8. But for Tiberius, upon his return to Capreæ, he fell sick. At first his distemper was but gentle; but, as that distemper increased upon him, he had small or no hopes of rea covery. Hereupon be bid Euodus, who was that freed-man whom he most of all respected, to bring the children * to him; for that he wanted to talk to them before he died. Now * Tiberius his own grandson, and Caius his brother Drusus's grandson.

he had at present 'no sons of his own alive; for Drusus, who was his only son, was dead; but Drusus's son Tiberius was still living, whose additional name was Gemellus : there was also living Caius, the son of Germanicus, who was the son * of his brother [Drusus). He was now grown up, and had had a liberal education, and was well improved by it, and was in esteem and favour with the people on account of the excellent character of his father Germanicus, who had attained the highest honour among the multitude, by the firmness of his virtuous behaviour, by the easiness and agreeableness of his conversing with the multitude, and because the dignity he was in, did not hinder his familiarity with them all, as if they were his equals; by which behaviour he was not only greatly esteemed by the people and the senate, but by every one of those nations that were subject to the Romans; some of which were affected, when they came to him, with the gracefulness of their reception by him, and others were affected in the same manner by the report of the others that had been with him: and upon his death there was a lamentation made by all men ; not such an one as was to be made in way of flattery to their rulers, while they did but counterfeit sorrow, but such as was real; while every body grieved at his death, as if they had lost one that was near to them. And truly such had been his easy conversation with men, that it turned greatly to the advantage of his son among all; and, among others, the soldiery were so peculiarly affected to him, that they reckoned it an eligible thing, if need were, to die themselves, if be might but attain to the government.

9. But when Tiberius had given order to Euodus to bring the children to him the next day in the morning, he prayed to his country gods to shew him a manifest signal, which of those children should come to the government; being very desirous to leave it to his son's son, but still depending upon what God should foreshew concerning them, more than upon his own opinion and inclination ; so he made this to be the oinen, that the government should be left to him who should come to him first the next day. When he had thus resolved within himself, he sent to his grandson's tutor, and ordered him to bring the child to him early in the morning, as supposing that God would permit him to be made emperor. But God proved opposite to his designation ; for while Tiberius was thus contriving matters, and as soon as it was at all day, he bid Euodus to call in that child which should be there ready. So he went out, and found Caius before the door, for Tibe

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* So I correct Josephus's copy, which calls Germanicus his brother, who was his brother's sen

rius was not yet come, but staid waiting for his breakfast; for Euodus knew nothing of what his lord intended; so he said to Oaius, “ Thy father calls thee,” and then brought him in. As soon as Tiberius saw Caius, and not before, he reflected on the power of God, and how the ability of bestowing the government on whom he would was entirely taken from him; and thence he was not able to establish what he had intended. So he greatly lamented that this power of es tablishing what he had before contrived was taken from him, and that his grandson Tiberius was not only to lose the Ro. man empire by this fatality, but his own safety also, because his preservation would now depend upon such as would be more potent than himself, who would think it a thing not to be borne, that a kinsman should live with them, and so his relation would not be able to protect him : but he would be feared and hated by him who had the supreme authority, partly on account of his being next to the empire, and partly on account of his perpetually contriving to get the govern. ment, both in order to preserve himself, and to be at the head of affairs also. Now Tiberius had been very much given to astrology,* and calculation of the nativities, and had spent his life in the esteem of what predictions had proved true, more than those whose profession it was. Accordingly, when he once saw Galba coming in to him, he said to his most intimate friends, that “ there came in a man that would one “ day have the dignity of the Roman empire.” So that this Tiberius was more addicted to all such sorts of diviners than any other of the Roman emperors, because he had found them to have told him truth in his own affairs. And indeed he was now in great distress upon this accident that had befallen him, and was very much grieved at the destruction of his son's son, which he foresaw and complained of himself, that he should have made use of such a method of divination beforehand, while it was in his power to have died without grief by this knowledge of futurity; whereas he was now tormented by his foreknowledge of the misfortune of such as were dearest to him, and must die under that torment. Now although he were disordered at this unexpected revolution of the government to those for whom he did not intend it, he spake thus to Caius, though unwillingly and against his own inclination : “ O child! although Tiberius be nearer related " to me than thou art, I, by my own determination, and the “ conspiring suffrage of the gods, do give, and put into thy hand, the Roman empire ; and I desire thee, never to be

* This is a known thing among the Roman historians and poets, that T.berius was greatly given to astrology and divination,

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