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“ unmindful when thou comest to it, either of my kindness os to thee, who set thee in so high a dignity, or of thy rela« tion to Tiberius. ' But as thou knowest that I am, together “ with, and after the gods, the procurer of so great happi
ness to thee, so I desire that thou wilt inake me a return " for my readiness to assist thce, and will take care of Tibe
rius because of his near relation to thee. Besides which 66. thou art to know, that, while Tiberius is alive, he will be a
security to thee, both as to empire and as to thy own pre.." servation; but, if he die, that will be but a prelude to thy
s own misfortunes; for, to be alone, under the weight of such 6 vast affairs, is very dangerous; nor will the gods suffer C6 those actions which are unjustly done, contrary to that law " which directs men to act otherwise, to go off unpunished.” This was the speech which Tiberius made, which did not persuade Caius to act accordingly, although he promised so to do; but, when he was settled in the government, he took off this Tiberius, as was predicted by the other Tiberius; as he was also himself in no long time afterward slain by a secret plot laid against him.
10. So when Tiberius had at this time appointed Caius to be his successor, he outlived, but a few days, and then died, after he had held the government twenty-two years five months and three days : now Caius was the fourth emperor. But when the Romans understood that Tiberius was dead, they rejoiced at the good news, but had not courage to believe it; not because they were unwilling it should be true, for they would have given large sums of money that it might be so, but because they were afraid, that if they had shewed their joy when the news proved false, their joy should be openly known, and they should be accused for it, and be thereby undone. For this Tiberius had brought a vast number of miseries on the best families of the Romans, since he was easily inflamed with passion in all cases, and was of such a temper as rendered his anger irrevocable, till he had executed the same, although he had taken a hatred against men without reason ; for he was by nature fierce in all the sentences he gave, and made death the penalty for the slightest offences; insomuch that when the Romans heard the rumour about his death gladly, they were restrained from the enjoyment of that pleasure by the dread of such miseries as they foresaw would follow, if their hopes proved ill-grounded. Now Marsyas, Agrippa's freedman, as soon as he heard of Tiberius's death, came running to tell Agrippa the news; and finding him going out to the bath, he gave bim a nod, and and said in the Hebrew tongue, “ The lion * is dead :" who
* This name of a lion is often given to tyrants, especially by the Jews, such as understanding his meaning, and being overjoyed at the news, “ Nay, said he, but all sorts of thanks and happiness attend " thee for this news of thine; only I wish that what thou say. s6 est may prove true.” Now the centurion, who was set to keep Agrippa, when he saw with what haste Marsyas came, and what joy Agrippa had froin what he said, he had a suspicion that his words implied some great innovation of affairs, and he asked them about what was said. They at first diverted the discourse ; but upon his farther pressing, Agrippa, without more ado, told him, for he was already become his friend ; so he joined with him in that pleasure which this news occasioned, because it would be fortunate to Agrippa, and made him a supper. But as they were feasting, and the cups went about, there came one who said, That Tiberius was "s still alive, and would return to the city in a few days.” At which news the centurion was exceedingly troubled, because he had done what might cost him his life, to have treated so joyfully a prisoner, and this upon the news of the death of Cæsar; so he thrust Agrippa from the couch whereon he lay, and said, “ Dost thou think to cheat me by a lie about the “ emperor without punishment ? and shalt not thou pay for “ this thy malicious report at the price of thine head !" When he bad so said, he ordered Agrippa to be bound again, (for he had loosed him before), and kept a severer guard over him than formerly, and in that evil condition was Agrippa that night; but the next day the rumour increased in the city, and confirmed the news that Tiberius was certainly dead ; insomuch that men durst now openly:and freely talk about it; nay, some offered sacrifices on that account. Several letters also came from Caius, one of them to the senate, wbich informed them of the death of Tiberius, and of his own entrance on the government; another to Piso, the governor of the city, which told him the same thing. He also gave order that Agrippa should be removed out of the camp, and go to that house where he lived before he was put in prison ; so that he was now out of fear as to his own affairs; for although he were still in custody, yet was it now with ease to his own affairs. Now as soon as Caius was come to Rome, and had brought Tiberius's dead body with him, and had made a sumptuous funeral for him, according to the laws of his country, he was much disposed to set Agrippa at liberty that very day, but Antonia hindered him ; not out of any ill-will to the prisoner, but out of regard to decency in Caius, lest that
Agrippa, and probably his freed-man Marsyas, in effect, were, Ezek. xix. 1--9, Esth, xiv. 13. 2 Tim. iv. 17. They are also sometimes compared to, or represented by wild beasts, of which the lion is the principal. Dap. vii. 3.-8. Apoc. -xiii, 1, 2.
should make men believe that he received the death of Tiberius with pleasure, when he loosed one whom he had bound immediately. However there did not many days pass ere he sent for him to his house, and had him shaved, and made him change his raiment, after which he put a diadem upon his head, and appointed him to be king of the tetrarchy of Philip. He also gave him the tetrarchy of Lysanias,* and changed his iron chain for a golden one of equal weight. He also sent Marullus to be procurator of Judea. .
11. Now in the second year of the reign of Caius Cæsar, Agrippa desired leave to be given him to sail home, and settle the affairs of his government, and he promised to return again, when he had put the rest in order, as it ought to be put. So upon the emperor's permission, he came into his own country, and appeared to them all unexpectedly as a king, and thereby demonstrated to the men that saw him, the power of fortune, when they compared his former poverty with his present happy affluence; so some called him an happy man, and others could not well believe that things were so much changed with him for the better.
How Herod the tetrarch was banished.
$ 1. But Herodias, Agrippa's sister, who now lived as wife to that Herod who was tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, took this authority of her brother in an envivus manner, particularly when she saw that he had a greater dignity bestowed on him than her husband had; since when he ran away, it was because he was in a way of dignity, and of great good fortune. She was therefore grieved, and much displeased at so great a mutation of his affairs, and chiefly when she saw him marching among the multitude with the usual ensigns of royal authority, she was not able to conceal how miserable she was, by reason of the envy she had towards him ; but she excited her husband, and desired him that he would sail to Rome, to court honours equal to his : for she said, That" she « could not bear to live any longer, while Agrippa, the son 66 of that Aristobulus who was condemned to die by his fa66 ther, one that came to her husband in such extreme pover" ty, that the necessaries of life were forced to be entirely 6 supplied him day by day; and when he fled away from 66 his creditors by sea, he now returned a king; while he was “ himself the son of a king, and while the near relation he " bare to royal authority, called upon him to gain the like “ dignity, he sat still, and was contented with a privater life. " But then, Herod, although thou was formerly not concern. " ed to be in a lower condition than thy father, from whom “ thou wast derived, had been; yet do thou now seek after " the dignity which thy kinsman hath attained to; and do “6 not thou bear this contempt, that a man who admired thy “ riches, should be in greater honour than thyself, nor suffer " his poverty to shew itself able to purchase greater things " than our abundance, nor do thou esteem it other than a « shameful thing to be inferior to one who, the other day, “ lived upon thy charity. But let us go to Rome, and let " us spare no pains nor expences, either of silver or gold, “ since they cannot be kept for any better use, than for the « obtaining of a kingdom."
* Although Caius now promised to give Agrippa the tetrarchy of Lysanias, yet was it not all actually conferred upon him till the reign of Claudius, as we learn Antiq. B. XIX, ch. v. sect. 1. Vol. III.
2. But for Herod, he opposed her request at this time, out of the love of ease, and having a suspicion of the trouble he should have at Rome; so he tried to instruct her better. But the more she saw him draw back, the more she pressed him to it, and desired him to leave no stone unturned in order to be king: and at last she left not off till she engaged him, whether he would or not, to be of her sentiments, because he could no otherwise avoid her importunity. So he got all things ready, after as sumptuous a manner as he was able, and spared for nothing, and went up to Rome, and took Herodias along with him. But Agrippa when he was made sensible of their intentions and preparations, he also prepared to go thither; and as soon as he heard they set sail, he sent Fortunatus, one of his freed--men to Rome, to carry presents to the emperor, and letters against Herod, and to give Caius a particular account of those matters, if he should have an opportunity. This man followed Herod so quick, and had so prosperous a voyage, and came so little after Herod, that while Herod was with Caius he came himself, and delivered his letters; for they both sailed to Dicearchia, and found Caius at Baiæ, which is itself a little city of Campania, at the distance of about five furlongs from Dicearchia.'. There are in that place royal palaces, with sumptuous apartments, every emperor still endeavouring to out-do his predecessor's magnificence: the place also affords warm baths, that spring out of the ground of their own accord, which are of advantage for the recovery of the health of those that make use of them, and besides, they minister to men's luxury also. Now Caius saluted Herod, for be first met with him, and then looked upon the letters which Agrippa had sent him, and which were written in order to accuse Herod; wherein he accused him,
when he cone same, the triproof of the a him his tetrarcalso
when boy the same sufficient look away. ippa's kingad of punisted
that he had been in confederacy with Sejanus, against Tibe. rius's government, and that he was now confederate with Artabanus, the king of Parthia, in opposition to the government of Caius; as a demonstration of which he alledged, that he had armour sufficient for seventy thousand men ready in his armoury. Caius was moved at this information, and asked Herod whether what was said about the armour was true; and when he confessed there was such armour there, for he could not deny the same, the truth of it being notorious, Caius took that to be a sufficient proof of the accusation, that he intended to revolt. So he took away from him his tetrarchy, and gave it by way of addition to Agrippa's kingdom; he also gave Herod's money to Agrippa, and, by way of punishment, awarded him a perpetual banishment, and appointed Lyons, a city of Gaul, to be his place of habitation. But when he was informed that Herodias was Agrippa's sister, he made her a present of what money was her own, and told her, that ós it was her brother who prevented her being put under " the same calamity with her husband.” But she made this reply ; “ Thou, indeed, ( emperor, actest after a magnifi« cent manner, and as becomes thyself in what thou offerest 66 me; but the kindness which I have for my husband hin" ders me from partaking of the favour of thy gift; for it is 6 not just, that I, who have been made a partner in his pros16 perity, should forsake him in his misfortunes.” Hereupon Caius was angry at her, and sent her with Herod into banishment, and gave her estate to Agrippa. And thus did God punish Herodias for ber envy at her brother, and Herod also for giving ear to the vain discourses of a woman. Now Caius managed public affairs with great magnanimity, during the first and second year of his reign, and behaved bimself with such moderation, that he gained the good-will of the Romans themselves, and of his other subjects. But in process of time he went beyond the bounds of human nature; in his conceit of himself, and by reason of the vastness of his dominions, made bimself a god, and took upon himself to act in all things to the reproach of the Deity itself.