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division into five books, the five fifths of the Law, (in pan.) The Greeks' named it ǹ IIɛvtáτεύχος, that is, Βίβλος Πεντάτευχος, and the Latins called it Pentateuchus, that is, liber Pentateuchus.
The Jews call single books by their initial words, and the Christians name them according to their contents."
CONTENTS OF THESE BOOKS.
1. GENESIS. (7.)
The history of the establishment of the theocracy is contained in these books, in the following order: Ac
Hensler, Bemerkk. üb. Stellen in d. Psalm. u. d. Gen.; Hamb. 1791, 8vo. Pentateuchus Hebr. et Gr. c. Annotatione perp. ed. G. A. Schumann, vol. i. Gen. compl.; Lips. 1829.
[Hartmann, Forschungen üb. die 5 BB. Moses; Rost. 1831.
Diodati, Annotations on the Bible, translated from the Italian; Lond. 1664, fol. Geddes, Holy Bible; 1792, sqq. 3 vols. 4to. Kidder, Commentary on the Five Books, &c.; 1694, 2 vols. 8vo. Jamieson, Critical and Practical Expos. of the Pentateuch; 1748, fol. Hughes, Analytical Exposition of the First Book of Moses, &c.; 1672, fol. Graves, Lectures, &c.; 1815, 2 vols. 8vo. Other works on the whole or a part of the Pentateuch have been written or compiled by the following authors: Durell, Lightfoot, (A Handful of Gleanings, &c.,) Dawson, Harwood, Franks, Dimock, Fuller, Rudge, Hopkins, &c.]
Josephus recognizes this division, (C. Ap. i. 8;) but it does not appear to be alluded to in 1 Cor. xiv. 19, as Jerome supposes, (Ep. 103 ad Paulinum, tom. iv. pt. 2, p. 572:) Huc usque Pentateuchus, quibus quinque verbis loqui se velle apostolus in ecclesia gloriatur.
Origen, xiv. in Joh. p. 218.
* See Tertullian, Cont. Marc. vol. i. p. 10. Compare, on the other side, Stange, Cujus Generis est Pentateuchus? in Keil's and Tzschirner's Anal. vol. i. 1 pt.
,סֵפֶר יְצִירָה מִזִיקִין :d The following names also occur among סֵפֶר ;ת' הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת or,, תּוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים (1325 .Comp. Buxtorf, Lex. Talm. p) ,See Hottinger .סֵפֶר תּוֹכָחוֹת or, מִשְׁנֶה תּוֹרָה ; סֵפֶר פְּקוּדִים or, הַמִּסְפָּרִים
Thes. Phil. p. 456, sqq. above, vol. i. p. 89, sqq.
cording to the opinion of the Hebrews, the theocracy is the centre and object of the whole history of the world; it is therefore related in Genesis, that the ground of it was laid immediately after the creation of the world; that the people of God was gradually separated from the other people, and the promise of the holy land, and of the holy constitution, was made to the patriarchs; and that even the fundamental laws of the state were then given.
Beside these principal matters, there are genealogical and ethnographical accounts and fragments of the first history of the human race inserted, as well as family histories of the descendants of Abraham. Among these, those which relate to Abraham, Jacob, and Joseph, are the most conspicuous.“
[It has often been asserted that the book of Genesis was designed to serve as an introduction to the Law. Thus, it is supposed, the fact that Adam and Eve were forbidden to eat of a certain tree, is related to sanction the prohibition of certain kinds of food forbidden to the Jews. The sad consequences which followed Adam's transgression were to warn the Jews against a similar offence. The misfortune which befell Lamech after marrying two wives, was "to show the Jews why the Law was not favorable to polygamy." When the sons of God dwelt with the daughters of men, the race became corrupt, and the deluge was sent to punish
"The following passages are the most important to show the theocratic plan of the book, which has a certain unity in its present form: Gen. ii. 3, ix. 1-17, 20—27, xii. 1—3, xiii. 14—17, xv. xvii. xix. 30-38, xxi. 1–20, xxiii. xxiv. 2—8, xxv. 1—6, 19–34, xxvii. xxviii. xxxv. 9–15, xxxvi. 6, xlvi. 1-7, xlviii. xlix. 1. 7—13. See De Wette, Kritik der Israelit. Gesch., or Beiträge ins A. T. vol. ii. Ewald, Gen. § 17, 18. Tuch, 1. c. p. xxi.
Long passages, like xiii. 14—17, and xxiii., may be apologetic, in the proper sense of the word; i. e. designed to show the Hebrew nation was the favorite of Heaven, and that their customs and laws were very ancient. See Augusti, § 108.
them. This was related to warn the Hebrews of the consequences that would ensue if they should marry the women of Canaan." Such assertions are entirely arbitrary. It might with equal truth be said Genesis was designed as an introduction to the Psalms, or to the book of Ecclesiastes. The book simply records the uncertain and mythical history of the Hebrew race, from Adam till the descent to Egypt. Abraham, therefore, is the most conspicuous character in the book. From him the history goes back in two genealogical lines,—from Seth, before the flood, from Shem, after it. After Abraham, his descendants were the only heroes of the story. Various statements and accounts came in as subsidiary to this general plan. This book was, doubtless, of great value to the Hebrews, as it is to us a priceless relic of olden times.
"Read it as two historical works' of the old world," says Eichhorn, "breathe therein the air of its age and country. Forget the age you live in, and the knowledge it affords you; and if you cannot do this, dream not that you can enjoy the book in the spirit of its origin. The youth of the world which it describes demands a spirit that has descended to its deeps. The first rays of the glimmering light of reason do not harmonize with the clear light of broad noon. The shepherd only speaks in the soul of the shepherd; and the primitive Oriental only speaks in the soul of another Oriental. Without an intimate acquaintance with the customs of pastoral life; without an accurate knowledge of the East and its manners; without a close intimacy with the manner of thinking
See numerous instances of this character in Jahn, vol. ii. § 9. [Referring to the two documents from which the book is composed. See below, § 150, sqq.]
and speaking in the uncivilized world, (obtained by a knowledge of Greece in its earliest ages, and of the uncultivated nations of modern times,)—you easily become a traitor to the book, when you would be its deliverer and interpreter.
"In particular, its language must not be treated like that of a cultivated and philosophic age. Above all, in this book, it is like the world in its childhood; it is often destitute of comprehensive general expressions, and therefore it must mention the parts of things, to furnish an idea of the whole. It is like a painting, or the language of poetry; like them it represents every thing part by part. And, since the language of our age is so far removed from the original simplicity of language in the ancient world, we must separate the thought from its dress.
"Finally, according to the language of this book, God produces every thing directly, without availing himself of the course of nature and certain intermediate causes. But in this there is nothing peculiar to it. Its conceptions are only like those of the ancient world in general, when it had not been ascertained, by long-continued inquiry, that all events are connected into a series of intermediate causes. Therefore it stops with God, the ultimate cause, as if he were supposed to be the immediate cause. And even for us, who have inquired into the causes of things, the name of God, in these cases, is often indispensable to fill up the blank, when cases, is often a superfluous expletive, and no sign that God has ever interrupted the course of things."]"
2. EXODUS. (ing by.)
The bonds of this people, which was called to a higher destiny, were knit, in the previous book, by the migration into Egypt, and were then drawn closer by their servitude; but they were soon loosed by the omnipotence of Jehovah, which was manifested through Moses. The people were brought out of Egypt amid miracles and punishments; and the long-promised covenant of God was solemnly established with them at Mount Sinai. The civil and religious institutions of the theocracy were established, and God took up his abode among his people."
3. LEVITICUS. (*737.)
This book must be considered as an addition to the legislation at Sinai, -the main features of which were contained in the previous book, — and it contains the chief laws which relate to the offerings, the feasts, and the priests, as well as the ordinances of sacred discipline. It contains only a little historical information, and that relates to the priests, (viii.-x.) The theocratical history advances no farther; it is only filled out, and completed.
The following passages belong to this part of the theocratic plan:
Ex. iii. iv. vi. 2-8, xii. 1-28, xiii. 1-16, xix. xx. xxiv. xl.