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the business houses which are most thronged with customers? They are those that advertise most persistently and attractively. So with the library; it will be more and more resorted to, in proportion as it keeps its name and its riches before the public eye.

A certain timeliness in these library notices should be cultivated. The papers are eager to get anything that illustrates what is uppermost in the public mind. If a local fair is in progress or preparing, give them a list of the best books the library has in that field; the history of the Philadelphia Exposition, the Chicago World's Fair, the Paris Expositions, &c. On another day, set forth the books on manufactures, horses, cattle, domestic animals, decorative art, &c. If there is a poultry exhibition, or a dog show, call public attention to the books on poultry or dogs. If an art exhibition, bring forward the titles of books on painting, sculpture, drawing, and the history of art, ancient and modern.

If some great man has died, as Bismarck or Gladstone, give the titles of any biographies or books about him, adding even references to notable magazine articles that have appeared. When the summer vacation is coming around, advertise your best books of travel, of summer resorts, of ocean voyages, of yachting, camping, fishing and shooting, golf and other out-door games, etc. If there is a Presidential campaign raging, make known the library's riches in political science, the history of administrations, and of nominating conventions, lives of the Presidents, books on elections, etc. If an international dispute or complication is on foot, publish the titles of your books on international law, and those on the history or resources of the country or countries involved; and when a war is in progress, books on military science, campaigns, battles, sieges, and the history of the contending nations will be timely and interesting

Whatever you do in this direction, make it short and attractive. Organize your material, describe a specially interesting work by a reference to its style, or its illustrations, or its reputation, etc. Distribute your library notes impartially; that is, if several papers are published, be careful not to slight any of them. Find out the proper days to suit their want of matter, and never send in your notes when the paper is overcrowded. Always read a proof-slip of each article; time spent in going to a newspaper office to correct proof is well spent, for misprints always await the unwary who trusts to the accuracy of types.

If the library acquires any extensive or notable book, whether old or new, do not fail to make it known through the press. If any citizen gives a number of volumes to the library, let his good deeds have an appreciative notice, that others may go and do likewise.

Another feature of library advertising is the publication in the press of the titles of new books added to the library. As this is merely catalogue printing, however abbreviated in form the titles may be, it will usually (and very properly) be charged for by the newspapers. But it will pay, in the direction of inducing a much larger use of the library, and as the sole object of the institution is to contribute to public intelligence, it becomes library managers not to spare any expense so conducive to that result.

CHAPTER 20.

THE FORMATION OF LIBRARIES.

In the widely extended and growing public interest in libraries for the people, and in the ever increasing gatherings of books by private collectors, I may be pardoned for some suggestions pertaining specially to the formation of libraries. I do not refer to the selection of books, which is treated in the first chapter, nor to the housing and care of libraries, but to some important points involved in organizing the foundation, so to speak, of a library.

The problem, of course, is a widely different one for the private collector of an individual or family library, and for the organizers of a public one.

But in either case, it is important, first of all, to have a clearly defined and well considered plan. Without this, costly mistakes are apt to be made, and time, energy and money wasted, all of which might be saved by seeing the end from the beginning, and planning accordingly.

Let us suppose that a resident in a community which has never enjoyed the benefit of a circulating library conceives the idea of using every means to secure one.

The first question that arises is, what are those means? If the State in which his residence lies has a Library law, empowering any town or city to raise money by taxation for founding and maintaining a free library, the way is apparently easy, at first sight. But here comes in the problem

can the requisite authority to lay the tax be secured? This may involve difficulties unforeseen at first. If there is a city charter, does it empower the municipal authorities (city council or aldermen) to levy such a tax? If not, then appeal must be made to a popular vote, at some election of municipal officers, at which the ballots for or against a Library tax should determine the question. This will at once involve a campaign of education, in which should be enlisted (1) The editors of all the local papers. (2) The local clergymen, lawyers and physicians. (3) All literary men and citizens of wealth or influence in the community. (4) All teachers in the public schools and other institutions of learning. (5) The members of the city or town government. These last will be apt to feel any impulse of public sentiment more keenly than their own individual opinions on the subject. In any case, the public-spirited man who originates the movement should enlist as many able coadjutors as he can. If he is not

If he is not himself gifted with a ready tongue, he should persuade some others who are ready and eloquent talkers to take up the cause, and should inspire them with his own zeal. A public meeting should be called, after a goodly number of well-known and influential people are enlisted (not before) and addresses should be made, setting forth the great advantage of a free library to every family. Its value to educate the people, to furnish entertainment that will go far to supplant idleness and intemperance, to help on the work of the public schools, and to elevate the taste, improve the morals, quicken the intellect and employ the leisure hours of all, should be set forth.

With all these means of persuasion constantly in exercise, and unremitting diligence in pushing the good cause through the press and by every private opportunity, up to the very day of the election, the chances are heavily in favor of passing the library measure by a good majority. It must be a truly Baotian community, far gone in stupidity or something worse, which would so stand in its own light as to vote down a measure conducing in the highest degree to the public intelligence. But even should it be defeated, its advocates should never be discouraged. Like all other reforms or improvements, its progress may be slow at first, but it is none the less sure to win in the end. One defeat has often led to a more complete victory when the conflict is renewed. The beaten party gathers wisdom by experience, finds out any weakness existing in its ranks or its management, and becomes sensible where its greatest strength should be put forth in a renewal of the contest. The promoters of the measure should at once begin a fresh agitation. They should pledge every friend of the library scheme to stand by it himself, and to secure at least one new convert to the cause. And the chances are that it will be carried triumphantly through at the next trial, or, if not then, at least within no long time.

But we should consider also the case of those communities where no State Library law exists. These are unhappily not a few; and it is a remarkable fact that even so old, and rich, and well-developed a State as Pennsylvania had no such provision for public enlightenment until within three years. In the absence of a law empowering local governments or voters to lay a tax for such a purpose, the most obvious way of founding a library is by local subscription. This is of course a less desirable method than one by which all citizens should contribute to the object in proportion to their means. But it is better to avail of the means that exist in any place than to wait an indefinite period for a State Legislature to be educated up to the point of passing measures which would render the formation of libraries easy in all places.

Let the experiment be tried of founding a library by individual effort and concert. With only two or three zealous and active promoters, even such a plan can be carried into successful operation in almost any community.

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