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vishes, under Wad an-Nagûmî, at Argîn, near Wâdi 1889. Halfa, killing 900 and taking 500 prisoners. On

the 5th, General Grenfell left Cairo for the south
with reinforcements, and made arrangements to
meet the attack of Wad an-Nagûmî, who, un-
daunted by his defeat at Argin, was marching
north ; and on August i this redoubtable warrior
collected his force of 3,300 men and 4,000 followers
on the hills to the south of Tushki, or Toski. On
the 3rd General Grenfell disposed his British and
Egyptian troops in such a way as to check the
advance of Wad an-Nagûmî, who, however, only
wished to get away and not to fight. He was at
length forced to fight, and he fought bravely, but
General Grenfell's tactics were so thoroughly well
planned and carried out, that the Dervish force
was completely routed and destroyed. About
1,200 were killed and 4,000 were taken prisoners,
and the Egyptian loss only amounted to 25 killed
and 140 wounded. The effect on the country was
marvellous, for, as Mr. Royle says (op. cit., p. 485),
"the victory of Toski marked the turning point in
the invasion, and was a shock to the cause of
Mahdiism which it took years to recover.” The
Dervish reinforcements beat a hasty retreat, and
the Khalifa suspended all further operations for the

invasion of Egypt. 1890. Osmân Dikna continued to make raids upon Sawâkin

from Tôkar. 1891. In January Colonel (now Sir C.) Holled-Smith set

out to attack Osmân Dikna, and on February 19

he routed the enemy at Tôkar, killing 700 men. 1892-1895. Osmân Dikna continued to harass the Arabs

round Sawâkin, and made raids wherever he thought he had any chance of success. On January 7,

A. 1).

1892, the Khedive, Tawfik Pâshâ, died after a 1892-5. short illness at Helwân, and he was succeeded by

his eldest son, Abbâs II. Hilmi ; the Imperial
Firman from the Porte confirming his succession
cost about £6,154, and was read on April 14.
'Abbâs Hilmi succeeded to the throne on January 8,
1892. He married Princess Ikbal Hanem, and
has offspring : Princess Amîna Hanem, born
February 12, 1895; Princess Atiat-Allah-Hanem,
born June 19, 1896 ; Princess Fathiah Hanem,
born November 27, 1897; Prince Muhammad
'Abd Al-Munêm, heir apparent, born February 20,
1899 ; Princess Lutfîa Hanem, born September 29,
1900; Prince 'Abd Al-Ķâdar, born February 4, 1902.
His brother, Muhammad ‘Alî, was born October 28,
1875, and his sisters Khadiga Hanem and Nimet
Hanem were born on May 2, 1879, and November 6,
1881. The Firman by which H.H. ‘Abbas reigns
is dated the 27th Sh‘abân, A.H. 1309, and ordains
that : 1. All revenues of the Khediviate of Egypt
shall be collected in the Sultân's name, but the
Khedive shall have power to make all internal
regulations and laws necessary for the well-being
of the country.

2. The Khedive shall have the power to conclude and renew Treaties, but all Conventions shall be communicated to the Porte before promulgation. 3. He is master of the financial affairs of the country, but may

not, except in certain cases, contract loans. shall not transfer his privileges to others. 5. He shall pay an annual tribute of £ T. 750,000. 6. Money is to be coined in the name of the Sulțân. 7. The Army shall contain not more than 18,000 men. 8. Colours and badges are to he the same as those of Turkey. 9. The Khedire

4. He


shall not build ironclads without the Porte's per1895. mission. IO. He may confer rank up to that

of Colonel, and on civilians up to Sania, inclusively. The Sultân defined the present Khedive's territories in accordance with the Firmans of A.H. 1257 and A.H. 1281, but this definition was modified by a telegram dated April 8, 1892. For the text of these documents

see Egypt No. 3 (1906), p. 3 ff. 1896. In the early part of this year Osmân Dikna's forces

were attacked and defeated with great loss by Colonel Lloyd, Major Sydney, and Captain Fenwick. On February 29 the Italians were defeated by the Abyssinians at Adua, and the garrison at Kasala was in imminent danger from the Dervishes. With a view of assisting Italy by making it necessary for the Dervishes to turn their attention elsewhere, the British Government determined to advance to 'Ukâshah and Donķola. In the hands of General Kitchener, who had succeeded General Grenfell as Sirdar of the Egyptian Army in April, 1892, the conduct of The new Sûdân Expedition was placed. On March 21 he left Cairo for the south, and the first serious skirmish between the Dervishes and Egyptians took place on May 1. Early in June the Sirdar divided his forces, and one column marched upon Ferket by way of the river, and another across the desert. On June 7 the two columns joined hands, and a fierce fight ensued. The Sirdar's arrangements were so skilfully made and carried out, that the Dervishes were utterly routed; they lost about 1,000 killed and wounded, and 500 were made prisoners. Among the killed were about forty of their chief men. The Egyptian


loss was 100 killed and wounded. On September 1896. 19 the Sirdar occupied Hasir after a fight, and four

days later the Egyptian troops entered Donķola ; Dabbah, Korti, and Marawî were next occupied, and the country as far as the foot of the Fourth Cataract

was once more in the hands of the Egyptians. 1897. Early in this year the decision to make the Wadi

Halfa and Abû-Hamed Railway was arrived at, for the Sirdar regarded it as absolutely necessary; by this route 216 miles of difficult river transport would be avoided. When the railway had advanced considerably more than half way to Aba Hamed, General Hunter marched from Marawi to Abû Hamed and defeated the Dervishes, who held it in force, and occupied it on August 7. Of the Dervish garrison of 1,500 men, about 1,300 were killed and wounded. Soon afterwards the Dervishes evacuated Berber, which was entered by General Hunter on September 13. On

October 31 the railway reached Abû-Hamed. 1898. On April 8th, Good Friday, the Sirdar utterly

defeated the great Dervish force under Mahmûd
at the Battle of the Atbara ; the Dervish loss was
about 3,000 killed, and 2,000 were taken prisoners,
while the Sirdar's loss was under 600 killed and
wounded. The forces engaged on each side were
about 14,000. On September 2nd the capture
of Omdurmân and the defeat of the Khalifa
'Abdu-Allahi were accomplished by the Sirdar. The
Khalifa's forces numbered at least 50,000, and
those of the Sirdar about 22,000. The Dervish
loss was
at least

11,000 killed and 16,000 wounded, and over 4,000 were made prisoners ; the Sirdar's loss was rather more than 400 killed and woundeci. The Khalifa escaped and fled south,


having first taken care to bury his treasure; the 1898. body of the Mahdî was removed from its 'tomb,

and burnt, and the ashes were thrown into the Nile; the head is said to be buried at Wâdi ħalfa. The tomb was destroyed because, if left untouched, it would always have formed a centre for religious fanaticism and sedition. On Sunday, September 4, the Sirdar held a memorial service for General Gordon at Kharțâm, when the British and Egyptian flags were hoisted. On the 19th the Sirdar hoisted the Egyptian flag at Fashôda, which had been occupied by Major Marchand, the head of a French expedition, who sought to claim as a right a position on the Nile on behalf of France. The village of Fâshôda is now known by the name of Kodok, which, strictly speaking, is the name

of a neighbouring village. 1899. On January 7th Colonel Nason occupied Fâmaka and

Fâzôglî. On January 25th Colonel Kitchener, brother of the Sirdar, set out to catch the Khalifa, who had fled towards Kordôfân, but his expedition failed for want of water. In November it was said that the Khalifa was at Gebel Kadîr, which lay to the north-west of Fâshôda, on the west bank of the Nile, and about 160 miles from the river. The Sirdar pursued with a large force, but the Khalifa fled towards Khartûm. On November 22 Colonel (now Sir) F. R. Wingate (now Sirdar of the Egyptian Army, and GovernorGeneral of the Sûdân) pursued him to Abâ Island on the Nile, and learning that he was encamped at Umm Dabrekât, attacked him on the 24th. After a fierce but short fight in the early morning, Colone! Wingate defeated the Khalifa, killing over 1,000 of his men, and taking prisoners

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