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A.D. vishes, under Wad an-Nagûmî, at Argîn, near Wâdi 1889. Halfa, killing 900 and taking 500 prisoners. On

the 5th, General Grenfell left Cairo for the south with reinforcements, and made arrangements to meet the attack of Wad an-Nagûmî, who, undaunted by his defeat at Argin, was marching north ; and on August i this redoubtable warrior collected his force of 3,300 men and 4,000 followers on the hills to the south of Tushki, or Toski. On the 3rd General Grenfell disposed his British and Egyptian troops in such a way as to check the advance of Wad an-Nagûmî, who, however, only wished to get away and not to fight. He was at length forced to fight, and he fought bravely, but General Grenfell's tactics were so thoroughly well planned and carried out, that the Dervish force was completely routed and destroyed. About 1,200 were killed and 4,000 were taken prisoners, and the Egyptian loss only amounted to 25 killed and 140 wounded. The effect on the country was marvellous, for, as Mr. Royle says (op. cit., p. 485), " the victory of Toski marked the turning point in the invasion, and was a shock to the cause of Mahdiism which it took years to recover.” The Dervish reinforcements beat a hasty retreat, and the Khalifa suspended all further operations for the

invasion of Egypt. 1890. Osmân Dikna continued to make raids upon Sawâkin

from Tôkar. 1891. In January Colonel (now Sir C.) Holled-Smith set

out to attack Osmân Dikna, and on February 19

he routed the enemy at Tôkar, killing 700 men. 1892–1895. Osmân Dikna continued to harass the Arabs

round Sawâkin, and made raids wherever he thought he had any chance of success. On January 7,

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A.D. 1892, the Khedive, Tawfik Pâshâ, died after a 1892-5. short illness at Helwân, and he was succeeded by

his eldest son, Abbâs II. Hilmi ; the Imperial
Firman from the Porte confirming his succession
cost about £6,154, and was read on April 14.
'Abbâs Hilmi succeeded to the throne on January 8,
1892. He married Princess Ikbal Hanem, and
has offspring : Princess Amîna Hanem, born
February 12, 1895 ; Princess Atiat-Allah-Hanem,
born June 19, 1896 ; Princess Fathiah Hanem,
born November 27, 1897 ; Prince Muhammad
'Abd Al-Munêm, heir apparent, born February 20,
1899 ; Princess Lutfîa Hanem, born September 29,
1900; Prince 'Abd Al-Ķâdar, born February 4, 1902.
His brother, Muhammad Ali, was born October 28,
1875, and his sisters Khadiga Hanem and Nimet
Hanem were born on May 2, 1879, and November 6,
1881. The Firman by which H.H. ‘Abbas reigns
is dated the 27th Sh'abân, A.H. 1309, and ordains
that : 1. All revenues of the Khediviate of Egypt
shall be collected in the Sultân's name, but the
Khedive shall have power to make all internal
regulations and laws necessary for the well-being
of the country. 2. The Khedive shall have the
power to conclude and renew Treaties, but all
Conventions shall be communicated to the Porte
before promulgation. 3. He is master of the
financial affairs of the country, but may not,
except in certain cases, contract loans. 4. He
shall not transfer his privileges to others. 5. He
shall pay an annual tribute of £ T. 750,000.
6. Money is to be coined in the name of the
Sulțân. 7. The Army shall contain not more
than 18,000 men. 8. Colours and badges are to
he the same as those of Turkey. 9. The Khedive

shall not build ironclads without the Porte's per1895. mission. 10. He may confer rank up to that

of Colonel, and on civilians up to Sania, inclusively. The Sulțân defined the present Khedive's territories in accordance with the Firmans of A.H. 1257 and A.H. 1281, but this definition was modified by a telegram dated April 8, 1892. For the text of these documents

see Egypt No. 3 (1906), p. 3 ff. 1896. In the early part of this year Osman Dikna's forces

were attacked and defeated with great loss by Colonel Lloyd, Major Sydney, and Captain Fenwick. On February 29 the Italians were defeated by the Abyssinians at Adua, and the garrison at Kasala was in imminent danger from the Dervishes. With a view of assisting Italy by making it necessary for the Dervishes to turn their attention elsewhere, the British Government determined to advance to 'Ukâshah and Donķola. In the hands of General Kitchener, who had succeeded General Grenfell as Sirdar of the Egyptian Army in April, 1892, the conduct of ihe new Sûdân Expedition was placed. On March 21 he left Cairo for the south, and the first serious skirmish between the Dervishes and Egyptians took place on May 1. Early in June the Sirdar divided his forces, and one column marched upon Ferket by way of the river, and another across the desert. On June 7 the two columns joined hands, and a fierce fight ensued. The Sirdar's arrangements were so skilfully made and carried out, that the Dervishes were utterly routed ; they lost about 1,000 killed and wounded, and 500 were made prisoners. Among the killed were about forty of their chief men. The Egyptian

A.1).. loss was 100 killed and wounded. On September 1896. 19 the Sirdar occupied Hasîr after a fight, and four

days later the Egyptian troops entered Donķola ; Dabbah, Korti, and Marawî were next occupied, and the country as far as the foot of the Fourth Cataract

was once more in the hands of the Egyptians. 1897. Early in this year the decision to make the Wâdi

Halfa and Abû-Hamed Railway was arrived at, for the Sirdar regarded it as absolutely necessary ; by this route 216 miles of difficult river transport would be avoided. When the railway had advanced considerably more than half way to Abû Hamed, General Hunter marched from Marawî to Abû Hamed and defeated the Dervishes, who held it in force, and occupied it on August 7. Of the Dervish garrison of 1,500 men, about 1,300 were killed and wounded. Soon afterwards the Dervishes evacuated Berber, which was entered by General Hunter on September 13. On

October 31 the railway reached Abd-Hamed. 1898. On April 8th, Good Friday, the Sirdar utterly

defeated the great Dervish force under Mahmud
at the Battle of the Atbara ; the Dervish loss was
about 3,000 killed, and 2,000 were taken prisoners,
while the Sirdar's loss was under 600 killed and
wounded. The forces engaged on each side were
about 14,000. On September 2nd the capture
of Omdurmân and the defeat of the Khalifa
'Abdu-Allahi were accomplished by the Sirdar. The
Khalifa's forces numbered at least 50,000, and
those of the Sirdar about 22,000. The Dervish
loss was at least 11,000 killed and 16,000
wounded, and over 4,000 were made prisoners ;
the Sirdar's loss was rather more than 400 killed
and woundeci. The Kbalîfa escaped and fled south,

A. 1). having first taken care to bury his treasure; the 1898. body of the Mahdî was removed from its 'tomb,

and burnt, and the ashes were thrown into the Nile; the head is said to be buried at Wâdi Halfa. The tomb was destroyed because, if left untouched, it would always have formed a centre for religious fanaticism and sedition. On Sunday, September 4, the Sirdar held a memorial service for General Gordon at Khartům, when the British and Egyptian flags were hoisted. On the 19th the Sirdar hoisted the Egyptian flag at Fashôda, which had been occupied by Major Marchand, the head of a French expedition, who sought to claim as a right a position on the Nile on behalf of France. The village of Fâshôda is now known by the name of Kôdôk, which, strictly speaking, is the name

of a neighbouring village. 1899. On January 7th Colonel Nason occupied Fâmaka and

Fâzôglî. On January 25th Colonel Kitchener, brother of the Sirdar, set out to catch the Khalîfa, who had fled towards Kordôfân, but his expedition failed for want of water. In November it was said that the Khalifa was at Gebel şadîr, which lay to the north-west of Fâshôda, on the west bank of the Nile, and about 160 miles from the river. The Sirdar pursued with a large force, but the Khalifa fled towards Khartûm. On November 22 Colonel (now Sir) F. R. Wingate (now Sirdar of the Egyptian Army, and GovernorGeneral of the Sûdân) pursued him to Abâ Island on the Nile, and learning that he was encamped at Umm Dabrekât, attacked him on the 24th. After a fierce but short fight in the early morning, Colonel Wingate defeated the Khalifa, killing over 1,000 of his men, and taking prisoners

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