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termine their meaning. For example, nem means “to sleep,''to walk,' 'to go back,''to become infirm,' 'tongue, and again’; without a determinative the meaning of this word in a sentence would be easily mistaken. DETERMINATIVES are of two kinds : I, ideographic, and II, generic. Thus after 893 màu, 'cat,' a cat, 22, was written; this is an ideographic determinative. After kerḥ, 'darkness,' the night sky with a star in it, In, was written ; this is a generic determinative. A word has frequently more than one determinative ; for example, in the
bal, to overflow,' is
a determinative of the sound bāḥ; mm is a determinative of water, 5 of a lake or collection of water, and of ground.
The list of hieroglyphic signs with their phonetic values given on pp. 221–227, will be of use in reading kings' names, etc.; for convenience, however, the hieroglyphic alphabet is added here. The system of transliteration of Egyptian characters used in this book is that most generally adopted.
The number of hieroglyphic characters is about two thousand.
i ţua, five
@ saā, a hundred
sas (?), six
I kha, a thousand no sekhef, seven
t'ebā, ten thousand Mes khemennu, eight shefnu, a hundred thou
þeḥ, a million The names of the numbers 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 are not known exactly.
Hieroglyphic inscriptions are usually to be read in the opposite direction to which the characters face; there is however no hard and fast rule in this matter. On the papyri they are read in various directions, and there are instances in which the ancient copyist mistook the end of a
chapter for its beginning, and copied the whole of it in the reverse order. Some inscriptions are to be read in perpen. dicular lines.
The following transliterated and translated extract from the first page of the “Tale of the Two Brothers," and the text on pp. 249–262, will explain the foregoing statements.
år ementuf khertu sen sen There were once on a time brothers two (the children]
pa āa au Anubis was the name of the elder, was
mi sekheru en sherau du ementuf after the manner of a servant, for it was he
mm 8 une des i åritu-nef hebsu auf her shem who made the clothes, it was he who followed
Li em-sa after
sekhet the fields,
henuti a farmer
nefer in excellent, not
getenu-f the like of him
O A em ta tcher-f .... kher år emkhet in the land the whole of it ... Now thus it was during
paif sen sheràu emsa naif was his brother younger following after his
mun 13 pri
åaut em paif sekheru enti cattle according to his wont of
hru neb ementuf her uāu (or beņāu) every day, and he
to $144 wo man KBI ORO
o e H ero pai-f per er tennu
ruha his house
every evening, and