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The ancient Egyptians had : I. the vague or civil year, which consisted of 365 days; it was divided into twelve months of thirty days each, and five intercalary days were added at the end ; II. the Sothic year of 365 days. The first year of a Sothic period began on the day when Sirius, the dog-star, rose with the sun ; this day was called the first of the month of Thoth. III. the Egyptian solar year, * which was treated as if it were a quarter of a day shorter than the Sothic year, an error which corrected itself in 1460 fixed years or 1461 vague years. The true year was estimated approximately by the conjunction of the sun with Sirius. Dr. Brugsch thinks (Egypt under the Pharaohs, Vol. I., p. 176) that as early as B.C. 2500 five different forms of the year were already in use, and that the "little year” corresponded with the lunar year, and the “great year” with a lunar year having intercalated days. Each month was dedicated to a god.† The Egyptians dated their stelæ and documents by the day of the month and the year of the king who was reigning at the time. The Copts first dated their documents according to the years of the INDICTION; the indictions were periods of fifteen years, and the first began A.D. 312. In later times the Copts made use of the era of the Martyrs, which was reckoned from the 29th of August, A.D. 284. About the ninth century after Christ they began to adopt the Muḥammadan era of the Hijra or “fight,” which was reckoned from A.D. 622. This they sometimes called the “Era of the Saracens.”
* It was practically the same as the civil year.
† Some of the Coptic names of the months show that they have been derived from the ancient Egyptian : thus Thôth is fron
Tehuti, Pachôn from O 1 Khensu, Athôr from A, ħat-Heru, Mesóre from o n @ mes-Heru, “ the birth of Ilorus ” festival, etc. The Copts have I. an agricultural year, and II. an ecclesiastical year; the latter consists of twelve months of thirty days, with a thirteenth month called Nissi of five or six intercalary days.
THE LIFE OF ÅAĦMES, THE NAVAL OFFICER,
AS TOLD BY HIMSELF.
ta-, rex · ten þesu
xepert · ni and I give you to know the favours which have come to me.
hen hent of it, (and was given] men and maid.