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creator of things which exist, prince, life, health, strength! president of the gods. We adore thy will, inasmuch as thou hast made us, thou hast made (us) and given us birth, and we give praises to thee by reason of thy resting with us.

“Hail to thee, maker of all things, lord of Law, father of he gods, maker of men, creator of animals, lord of grain, making to live the cattle of the hills ! Hail Åmen, bull, beautiful of face, beloved in the Apts, mighty of risings in the shrine, doubly crowned in Heliopolis, thou judge of Horus and Set in the great hall. President of the great cycle of the gods, ONLY ONE, * without his second, at the head of the Apts, Åni at the head of the cycle of his gods, living in Law every day, the double-horizoned Horus of the East! He has created the mountain (or earth), the silver, the gold, and genuine lapis-lazuli at his Will . . . . Incense and fresh antit are prepared for thy nostrils, O beautiful face, coming from the land of the Mātchau, Amen-Rā, lord of the thrones of the two lands, at the head of the Apts, Àni at the head of his shrine. King, one among the gods, myriad are his names, how many are they is not known; shining in the eastern horizon and setting in the western horizon, overthrowing his enemies by his birth at dawn every day. Thoth exalts his two eyes, and makes him to set in his splendours; the gods rejoice in his beauties which those who are in his .

exalt. Lord of the sekti f boat, and of the āțets boat, which travel over the sky for thee in peace, thy sailors rejoice when they see Nák overthrown, his limbs stabbed with the knife, the fire devouring him, his foul soul beaten out of his foul body, and his feet carried away. The gods rejoice, Rā is satisfied, Heliopolis is glad, the enemies of Atmu are overthrown,

Compare “ The Lord our God is ONE," Deut. vi. 4. † A perfume brought into Egypt from the East. I The boat in which Rā sailed to his place of setting in the West. $ The boat in which Rā sailed from his place of rising in the East.

and the heart of Nebt-ānkh * is happy because the enemies of her lord are overthrown. The gods of Kher-āņa are rejoicing, those who dwell in the shrines are making obeisance when they see him mighty in his strength (?) Form (?) of the gods of law, lord of the Apts in thy name of 'maker of Law. Lord of tchefau food, bull ... thy name of ‘Amen bull of his mother.'. Maker of mortals, making ..... become, maker of all things that are in thy name of Atmu Kheperá. Mighty Law making the body festal, beautiful of face, making festal the breast. Form of attributes (?), lofty of diadem; the two uræi fly by his forehead. The hearts of the pātu go forth to him, and unborn generations turn to him ; by his coming he maketh festal the two lands. Hail to thee, Amen-Rā, lord of the thrones of the two lands ! his town loves his shining."

Another hymn to Åmen-Rā reads as follows :1. Hail, prince coming forth from the womb ! 2. Hail, eldest son of primeval matter ! 3. Hail, lord of multitudes of aspects and evolutions ! 4. Hail, golden circle in the temples ! 5. Hail, lord of time and bestower of years ! 6. Hail, lord of life for all eternity! 7. Hail, lord of myriads and millions ! 8. Hail, thou who shinest in rising and setting ! 9. Hail, thou who makest beings joyful ! 10. Hail, thou lord of terror, thou fearful one ! 11. Hail, lord of multitudes of aspects and divinities ! 12. Hail, thou who art crowned with the white crown ;

thou master of the urerer crown! 13. Hail, thou sacred baby of Horus, praise ! 14. Hail, son of Rā who sittest in the boat of millions of


15. Hail, restful leader, come to thy hidden places !

*1.e., “the lady of life," a name of Isis.

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16. Hail, lord of terror, self-produced ! 17. Hail, thou restful of heart, come to thy town! 18. Hail, thou that causest cries of joy, come to thy town! 19. Hail, thou darling of the gods and goddesses ! 20. Hail, thou dipper in the sea, come to thy temple ! 21. Hail, thou who art in the Nether-world, come to thy

offerings ! 22. Hail, thou that protectest them, come to thy temple ! 23. Hail, Moon-god, growing from a crescent into an

illuminated disk ! 24. Hail, sacred flower of the mighty house! 25. Hail, thou that bringest the sacred cordage of the

Sekti * boat ! 26. Hail, thou lord of the Hennut boat who becomest

young again in the hidden place ! 27. Hail, thou perfect soul in the Nether-world! 28. Hail, thou sacred visitor of the north and south ! 29. Hail, thou hidden one, unknown to mankind ! 30. Hail, thou illuminator of him that is in the Nether

world, that causest him to see the disk!

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kla Risest thou

tаи morning

sekti sekti boat ;

in the

in the

þetep-k Settest thou

in the måti boat


in the

+ The ḥennu

was the boat which was drawn

around the sanctuaries of the temples at dawn. Drawings of it are given by Lanzone, Dizionario, plates CCLXV.CCLXVII.

31. Hail, lord of the atef crown thou mighty one in

Het-suten-ḥenen ! * 32. Hail, mighty one of terror! 33. Hail, thou that risest in Thebes, flourishing for ever! 34. Hail, Amen-Rā, king of the gods, who makest thy

limbs to grow in rising and setting ! 35. Hail, .

offerings and oblations in Ru-stau (i.e., the passages of the tomb)! 36. Hail, thou that placest the uræus upon the head of its lord! 37. Hail, stablisher of the earth upon its foundations ! 38. Hail, opener of the mouth of the four mighty gods who

are in the Nether-world ! 39. Hail, thou living soul of Osiris, who art diademed with

the moon ! 40. Hail, thou that hidest thy body in the great coffin at

Heliopolis ! 41. Hail, hidden one, mighty one, Osiris in the Netherworld! 42. Hail, thou that unitest his soul to heaven, thine enemy

is fallen ! Isis, 28, Åset, the mother of Horus and wife of Osiris, 1, Åsår

, was the daughter of Nut, or the sky; she married her brother Osiris. Her sister Nephthys 12 and her brother Set likewise married one another. This last couple conspired against Isis and Osiris, and Set, having induced his brother Osiris to enter a box, closed the lid down and threw the box into the Nile; it was carried down by the river and finally cast up on the sea shore.

Set, having found the box once more, cut the body of Osiris into fourteen pieces, which he cast over the length and breadth of the land. As soon as


Herakleopolis, the metropolis of the 20th nome of Upper Egypt.

Isis heard what had happened, she went about seeking for the pieces, and built a temple over each one ; she found all save one. Osiris, however, had become king of the netherworld, and vengeance was taken by his son Horus upon his brother Set. Osiris is usually represented in the form of a mummy, holding in his hands ? 'dominion,' f life, A rule,' and I ‘power.' He is called the lord of Abydos,' 'lord of the holy land, lord of eternity and prince of everlasting,' the president of the gods,' the head of the corridor of the tomb,' 'bull of the west,' “judge of the dead, etc., etc.

The writers of Egyptian mythological texts always assume their readers to possess a knowledge of the history of the murder of Osiris by Set, and of the wanderings and troubles of his disconsolate wife Isis. The following extracts from Plutarch's work on the subject will supply certain information not given in the Egyptian texts.

"Osiris, being now become king of Egypt, applied himself towards civilizing his countrymen by turning them from

their former indigent and barbarous course of life; he moreover taught them how to cultivate and improve the fruits of the earth; he gave them a body of laws to regulate their conduct by, and instructed them in that reverence and worship which they were to pay to the gods ; with the same good disposition he afterwards travelled over the rest of the world, inducing the people everywhere to submit to his discipline; not indeed compelling them by force of arms, but persuading them to yield to the strength of his reasons, which were conveyed to them in the most agree

able manner, in hymns and songs accomOSIRIS,

panied with instruments of music ; from

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