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religious texts of a most important character. They constitute the earliest known copy of the Heliopolitan version of the Book of the Dead.

Dynasty VI., from Memphis. 3266. Tetà. He built a pyramid at Sakkâra. The walls

of its chambers and corridors are inscribed with

hieroglyphic texts. Rā-user-ka. He built a pyramid, probably at

Şakkâra. 3233. Rā-meri, Pepi I. In his reign lived Uni, a man

of humble birth, who began life in the royal service as a “crown bearer” ; he was next made overseer of the workmen, and was soon after sent to Tura to bring back a block of stone for the sarcophagus of the king. He was then made governor of the troops, and was set at the head of an expedition against the Āāmu, or Semitic tribes of the Eastern Desert, and the Herushā, or nomad tribes of the South-eastern Sûdân. On five different occasions did Unå wage war successfully against Egypt's foes, and having wasted their countries with fire and sword, he returned to Memphis crowned with glory. The inscription is of the greatest importance for the history of the period, and is interesting as showing that a man of very humble birth could attain to the highest dignities at the Egyptian court. He built a

pyramid at Sakkâra. 3200. Mer-en-Rā, Mehti-em-sa-f. He built at Şakkâra

the pyramid called by the Arabs Haram asŞayyâdin, or “Hunters' Pyramid.” It was opened by Mariette in 1880. His mummy is preserved in Cairo. The official Her-khuf began his career in this reign.

B.C. 3166. Nefer-ka-Rā, Pepi II. He built at Sakkâra a

pyramid, the walls of the chambers of which are covered with hieroglyphic texts of a religious character. He sent the official Her-khuf to the “Land of the Spirits,” to bring back a pygmy. Mer-en-Rā, Mehti-em-sa-f II (?).

Rā-neter-ka. 3133 (?). Nit-áqert (Nitocris), “the beautiful woman with

rosy checks."
(?) I-em-ḥetep.

Dynasties VII. -- XI. According to Manetho we have :VIIth Dynasty. From Memphis; 70 kings in 70

days. VIIItho Dynasty. From Memphis; 27 kings in

146 years. IXth Dynasty. From Herakleopolis; 19 kings

in 409 years. Xth Dynasty. From Herakleopolis ; 19 kings

in 185 years. XIth Dynasty. From Thebes; 16 kings in

43 years. The Tablet of Abydos gives the following selection of royal names :


Rā-men-ka. 3133. Rā-nefer-ka. 3000. Rā-nefer-ka-Nebi. Scarabs of this king exist. 2966. Rā-țet-ka-maā— .. 2933. Rā-nefer-ka-Khențu. 2900. Mer-en-Heru. 2866. Senefer-ka. 2833. Rā-en-ka. Scarabs of this king exist.


2800. Rā-nefer-ka-tererl.
2766. Heru-nefer-ka.
2733. Rā-nefer-ka-Pepi-senb.
2700. Ra-nefer-ka-Annu.
2666. Rā. . . . -kau.
2633. Rā-nefer-kau.
2600. Heru-nefer-kau.
2533. Rā-nefer-åri-ka.

(?) Rā-neb-ḥap.
(?) Rā-Seānkh-ka.

Dynasties IX and X, from Herakleopolis. From the

Khati, the Akhthoệs of Manetho. The successors

of this king may have been :-
Rā-nub-taui (?).

Rā-khā-user. The above five names are found on scarabs, and each has the title Neter nerer, 7“ beautiful god,” prefixed to it; it is possible that they belong to the period between the Xth and XIIIth dynasties.

Rā-ka-meri, who was greatly helped in his wars

by the princes of Siut (Asyût), Khati I., Tefabá, and Khati II.

Dynasty XI., from Diospolis, or Thebes, It is not at present possible to arrange in chronological order the names of the kings of this dynasty, although several of them are well known. Names common to some of them are Antefa and Menthu-hetep. Some of the kings

appear to have ruled for long periods, but their reigns were on the whole uneventful; the burial place of the kings of this dynasty is at Drah abu'l-Neķķah.

Antefa, who bore the titles of ERPĂ O and ŅĀ.
Neb-hetep, Menthu-hetep I. He worked the

granite quarries in the First Cataract, and the

quarries in Wâdî Hammâmât. Rā-neb-taui, Menthu-ḥetep II. He also

worked the quarries in Wâdî Hammâ mât. Rā-neb-hap, Menthu-hetep III. His temple

at Dêr al-Baħarî was excavated by Messrs. Naville and Hall in the winters of 1903-1906. He built a pyramid tomb in connexion with his temple.

It has been customary to include among the kings of

the XIth dynasty the following :-
Antef-āa I. His coffin is in the Louvre.
Åntef-āa II. His coffin is in the Louvre.
Antef-āa III. His coffin is in the British Museum.
Antef-āa IV. His favourite dog was called Behuka.
Antef-āa V. His tomb, with its two obelisks, was

discovered by Mariette.
These kings, with the exception of Antef-āa IV., may

have reigned in the period between the XIIIth and XVIIth dynasties. Åntef-āa IV., whose Horus name was Uah-ānkh 8 7 , was the son of Herunekht-neb țep-nefer o Antef-āa, and the grandson of Heru-seānkh-ab-taui, son

of RĂ-Menthu-hetep

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2500. Se-ānkh-ka-Rā. This king is known to us through

an inscription at Hammâmât, which states that he sent an expedition to the land of Punt; this shows that at that early date an active trade must have been carried on across the Arabian desert between Egypt and Arabia. His officer Hennu set out with 3,000 men and dug wells at Åțahet and Aaheteb. Se-ankh-ka-Rā appears to have been the immediate predecessor of the first king of the XIIth dynasty. The nomen of this king is uncertain, but it was probably, as MM. Pierret, Deveria, and Maspero have shewn, Menthuþetep.


Dynasty XII., from Diospolis, or Thebes. 2466. Amenemḥāt I. ascended the throne of Egypt after

hard fighting ; he conquered the Vaua, a Libyan.
tribe that lived near Korosko in Nubia, and wrote
a series of instructions for his son Usertsen I. The

story of Sanehet was written during this reign. 2433. Usertsen 1., the Sesonchosis of Manetho, made

war against the tribes of Ethiopia ; he erected granite obelisks and built largely at Heliopolis. He and his father built pyramids at Lisht, a

necropolis situated about 30 miles south of Cairo. 2400. Amenemhāt II. Khnemu-hetep, son of Nehera,

whose tomb is at Beni-hasân, lived during the

reign of this king. 2366. Usertsen II. He built a pyramid at Illahûn. In

his reign a party of 37 Aaniu, or Semites from the Eastern Desert, visited Egypt, bringing eyepaint with them.

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