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sary to borrow six * signs from the demotic forms of ancient Egyptian characters to express the sounds which they found unrepresented in Greek. The dialect of Upper Egypt is called “Sahidic”f or Theban, and that of Lower Egypt “Memphitic.” † During the last few years the study of Coptic has revived among European scholars, but this is partly owing to the fact that the importance of a knowledge of the language, as a preliminary to the study of hieroglyphics, has been at length recognized. The Roman Propagandist Tuki published during the XVIIIth century some valuable works; in spite, however, of the activity of scholars and the enterprise of publishers, it still costs nearly £5 to purchase a copy of as much of the Memphitic Coptic version of the Bible as has come down to us.

The Bedâwîyûn are represented by the various Arabicspeaking and Muḥammadan tribes who live in the deserts which lie on each side of the Nile; they amount in number to about 250,000. The Bishârîn, Hadanduwa, and ‘Abâbdah tribes, who speak a language called 'tû bedhawiya,' and who

* These signs are: y = me sh; q=ta f;

D= kh; 8 = l ";

x= š; c= a . + This is the older and richer dialect of Coptic, which was spoken from Minyah to Aswân.

I More correctly called Boheiric,!from the province of Baḥêra in the Delta ; the name Bashmuric has been wrongly applied to this dialect, but as it appears to have been exclusively the language of Memphis, it may be styled “Middle Egyptian.” The dialect of Bashmûr on the Lake of Menzâlah appears to have become extinct about A.D. 900, and to have left no traces of itself behind. See Stern, Kopt. Gram., p. I.

§ The Bishârîn (sing. Bishârî sil ) are the representatives of the Bega or Beja of Arabic writers, of the BOYPAEITIN of the Axum Inscriptions, and probably of the Bukka, a nation conquered by Thothmes III,

live in the most southern part of Upper Egypt, Nubia, and Abyssinia, are included among this number.* Among these three tribes the institutions of Muḥammad are not observed with any great strictness. When the Bedâwîyûn settle down to village or town life, they appear to lose all the bravery and fine qualities of independent manhood which characterize them when they live in their home, the desert. The ciassical name for the desert tribes is “'Irâbîyûn,” or "Urbán," but a dweller in the flat, open desert is called "Badawi,” or “Badawi,” the plural being “Badâwîyûn.” This name was introduced into European literature by the early French Arabists, who always spoke of “les Bedouins.”

The inhabitants of Cairo, Alexandria, and other large towns form a class of people quite distinct from the other inhabitants of Egypt; in Alexandria there is a very large Greek element, and in Cairo the number of Turks is very great. In the bazaars of Cairo one may see the offspring of marriages between members of nearly every European nation and Egyptian or Nubian women, the colour of their skins varying from a dark brick-red to nearly white. The shopkeepers are fully alive to their opportunities of making money, and would, beyond doubt, become rich but for their natural indolence and belief in fate. Whatever they appear or however much they may mask their belief in the Muḥammadan religion, it must never be forgotten that they have the greatest dislike to every religion but their own. The love of gain alone causes them to submit to the remarks made upon them by Europeans, and to suffer their entrance and sojourning among them.

The Nubians or Barabara, as they are sometimes called, inhabit the tract of land which extends from Aswân or

See Almkvist, Die Bischari-Sprache Tu-Bedāwie in Nordost Africa, Upsala, 1881. Vol. II, Upsala, 1885.

Syene to the fourth cataract. The word Nubia appears to be derived from nub, 'gold,' because Nubia was a goldproducing country. The word Berber is considered to mean 'barbarian' by some, and to be also of Egyptian origin. They speak a language which is allied to some of the North African tongues, and rarely speak Arabic well. The Nubians found in Egypt are generally doorkeepers and domestic servants, who can usually be depended upon for their honesty and obedience.

The Negroes form a large part of the non-native population of Egypt, and are employed by natives to perform hard work, or are held by them as slaves. They are Muḥammadans by religion, and come from the countries known by the name of Sûdân. Negro women make good and faithful servants.

The Syrian Christians who have settled down in Egypt are generally known by the name of Levantines. They are shrewd business men, and the facility and rapidity with which they learn European languages place them in positions of trust and emolument.

The Turks form a comparatively small portion of the population of Egypt, but many civil and military appointments are, or were, in their hands. Many of them are the children of Circassian slaves. The merchants are famous for their civility to foreigners and their keen eye to business.

The Armenians and Jews form a small but important part of the inhabitants in the large towns of Egypt. The former are famous for their linguistic attainments and wealth ; the latter have blue eyes, fair hair and skin, and busy themselves in mercantile pursuits and the business of bankers and money-changing.

The European population in Egypt consists of Greeks, 38,175; Italians, 24,467; English, 19,557 ; French, 14,155; Austrians, 7,117; Russians, 3,193; Germans, 1,277; Spaniards, 765; Swiss, 472 ; Americans, 291; Belgians, 256 ; Dutch, 247 ; Portuguese, 151; Swedes, 107; Danes, 72; Persians, 1,301; Miscellaneous, 923. The greater part of the business of Alexandria is in the hands of the Greek merchants, many of whom are famous for their wealth. It is said that the Greek community contributes most largely to the crime in the country, but if the size of that community be taken into account, it will be found that this statement is not strictly true. The enterprise and good business habits of the Greeks in Alexandria have made it the great city that it is. The French, Austrian, German, and English nations are likewise represented there, and in Cairo, by several first-rate business houses. The destructive fanaticism peculiar to the Muḥammadan mind, so common in the far east parts of Mesopotamia, seems to be non-existent in Egypt; such fanaticism as exists is, no doubt, kept in check by the presence of Europeans, and all the different peoples live side by side in a most peaceable manner. The great benefit derived by Egypt from the immigration of Europeans during the last few years is evident from the increased material prosperity of the country, and the administration of equitable laws which has obtained. The European element in Egypt now contributes to the revenue in taxation a considerable sum annually.

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SKETCH OF COPTIC HISTORY. About A.D. 64 St. Mark made Ananius patriarch of Alexandria, and he also appointed to the church there twelve presbyters, from whom a successor to Ananius was to be elected ; the patriarch was at that time called Bâbâ or Pâpâ. Ananius was succeeded by Minius or Philetius (A.D. 87), who was succeeded by Cerdo (A.D. 99), during whose rule a fierce persecution of the Christians took place by the order of Hadrian; his successor was Primus (A.D. 110), during whose rule the persecution of Hadrian was continued. This emperor caused the Christians to be massacreà in large numbers, and well nigh exterminated them in Egypt; he destroyed also the Christian churches in Jerusalem. After Primus came Justus (A.D. 118), Eumenius (A.D. 133), Marcianus (A.D. 143), Claudianus (A.D. 153), Agrippinus (A.D. 167), Julianus (A.D. 179), Demetrius (A.D. 190), during whose rule Severianus slaughtered large numbers of the Christians in Egypt, and overthrew their churches. This persecution was continued in the time of Theoclas (A.D. 231), but was relaxed in that of Cæsar Philippus. During the rule of Dionysius (A. D. 244) the Christians in Egypt suffered much at the hands of Decius ; about this time St. Anthony the Great retired to the desert and taught men to lead there an ascetic life. . After Maximus* (A.D. 266) Theonas became patriarch (A.D. 282); under his rule a church in honour of the Virgin Mary was built at Alexandria, and the Christians worshipped therein openly; his successor Peter (A.D. 289) was slain in Alexandria, and his disciple Achillas (A.D. 295), who was elected patriarch after him, only sat for six months. The persecution of the Christians by Diocletian was very severe,

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