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B.C. the conflict, but they were strong enough to force 1333. Rameses to make a treaty with them, in which it

was laid down that Egyptian territory in Palestine ended at the Dog River. Rameses II. married a Kheta princess. He completed the canal which joined the Red Sea with the Nile at Bubastis. The famous temple at Abû Simbel was made to

record his “victory” over the Kheta. 1300. Mer-en-Ptaḥ Hetep-her-Maāt is thought to

have been the Pharaoh of the Exodus; his mummy was found in the tomb of Amenophis II. at Thebes. In the fifth year of his reign a serious revolt of the Libyan tribes took place. The name of the “ Israelites” (19 Tonolii)

1440 4 let i si appears to occur in his “Hymn of Triumph ” which is found on the back of a stele of

Amen-ḥetep III.
Seti II. Mer-en-Ptah.
Sa-Ptah Mer-en-Ptah. His tomb at Thebes

was excavated by Mr. Theodore M. Davis in
1906. After the death of Sa-Ptaḥ Egypt fell into
a state of anarchy, and about this time a Syrian
called Årsu 1867 l ho made himself
master of a portion of Syria and Egypt.


Dynasty XX., from Thebes. Set-Nekht, a relative of Rameses II. 1200. Rameses III. the Rhampsinitus of Herodotus, the

son of Set-Nekht, was famous for his buildings, and

B.C. for the splendid gifts which he made to the temples 1200. of Thebes, Abydos and Heliopolis. In the fifth year

of his reign he crushed the Libyan revolt headed by Tit I , and slew 12,000 of his warriors. He developed a naval force, which, working with his army, defeated the league of Mediterranean peoples who attacked Egypt in the eighth year of his reign. Rameses III. also crushed a second Libyan revolt headed by Kapur

A conspiracy was formed in the harîm of Rameses III., the object of which was either to dethrone or murder him; it was unsuccessful, and the ringleaders were either killed or made to commit suicide. His reign repre

sented an era of great commercial prosperity. 1166. Rameses IV., son of Rameses III. The great

event of his reign was an expedition to the Wâdi Hammâmât, undertaken probably with the object of suppressing a revolt. The officers and men employed numbered 8,368, and goo of them perished between the time the expedition left Thebes and

returned to that city. Rameses V. Rameses VI. The official Pennut devoted the

revenues of an estate to the maintenance of the

tomb of this king for ever. Rameses VII. Rameses VIII. Rameses IX. In his reign the robbers of the royal tombs at Thebes were prosecuted, and the highpriest of Àmen usurped much of the royal power, and obtained the king's consent to levy taxes on the people.

Rameses X.
Rameses XI.
Rameses XII. repaired the temple of Khensu at

About this time was made the copy of the Maxims of Ani,
which is now in the Museum at Cairo ; it was written for
Ani's son Khonsu-ḥetep, and the following are taken from
it :-
“If a man cometh to seek thy counsel, let this drive

thee to books for information. “Enter not into the house of another; if a man maketh

thee to enter his house it is an honour for thee. “Spy not upon the acts of another from thy house. “Be not the first to enter or to leave an assembly lest

thy name be tarnished. “The sanctuary of God abhorreth noisy declamations.

Pray humbly and with a loving heart, whose words are spoken silently. God will then protect thee, and

hear thy petitions, and accept thy offerings. “Consider what hath been. Set before thee a correct

rule of life as an example to follow. The messenger of death will come to thee as to all others to carry thee away; yea, he standeth ready. Words will profit thee nothing, for he cometh, he is ready! Say not, 'I am a child, wouldst thou in very truth bear me away?' Thou knowest not how thou wilt die. Death cometh to meet the babe at his mother's breast, even as he meeteth the old man who hath finished his

course. “ Take heed with all diligence that thou woundest no

man with thy words. “Keep one faithful steward only, and watch his deeds,

and let thy hand protect the man who hath charge of thy house and property.


"The man who having received much giveth little, is as

one who committeth an injury. "Be not ungrateful to God, for He giveth thee existence. “Sit not while another standeth if he be older than thou,

or if he is thy superior. “Whosoever speaketh evil receiveth no good. "When thou makest offerings to God, offer not that

which He abominateth. Dispute not concerning His mysteries. The god of the world is in the light above the firmament, and his emblems are upon

earth; it is unto those that worship is paid daily. "When thou hast arrived at years of maturity, and art

married and hast a house, forget never the pains which thou hast cost thy mother, nor the care which she hath bestowed upon thee. Never give her cause to complain of thee, lest she lift up her hands to God

in heaven, and He listen to her complaint. “ Be watchful to keep silence.”

Dynasty XXI., from Tanis. Nes-ba-neb-seţteț, the Smendes of Manetho.

He sent 3,000 men to obtain stone from a quarry near Gebelên to repair a portion of the temple of

Luxor. Pa-seb-khā-nut I. He cut his name on one of

the black granite sphinxes of Amenemḥāt III., side by side with the names of kings Apepå and Mer-en-Ptaḥ. The face of this remarkable monument has given rise to much discussion, and the theories propounded on the subject of the origin of the monument have been many. Mariette believed it to have been made by the so-called Hyksos, or “Shepherd Kings,"

and saw in the strange features of the face, and short, thick-set lion's body, a proof of their Asiatic origin. Some have seen a likeness to a Turanian original in the features, and others have insisted, probably rightly, that the king for whom the monument was originally made was a foreigner. Judging from the style of the work and the form of the lion's body, we should probably attribute it to a period anterior to B.C. 2000 ; that the name of the so-called Hyksos king Apepå is inscribed upon it proves nothing except that this king, in common with others, had his name inscribed on the statue. On the right shoulder, almost effaced, is the name of Åpepå; on the left shoulder is the name of Menephthah I. ; on the right-hand side and front of the pedestal are the cartouches of Rameses II.; and on the breast is

the cartouche of Pasebkhānet.
Sa-Amen, who restored a portion of the temple of

Rameses II. at Tanis.
Pa-seb-khā-nut II. His daughter is said to have

married Solomon, king of Israel.

Dynasty XXI., from Thebes (PRIEST-KINGS).


1100- Her-Heru Sa Amen, the first priest-king. In 1000 his reign the priest Unu-Àmen was despatched

to Syria to buy wood for a new boat of the god

Painetchem I., grandson of Her-Heru.
Painetchem II. He married the daughter of

Pai-seo-khā-nut I, king of Tanis.

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