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called Rā-nub, and M. Mariette found the same name on one of the stelæ in the Serapeum. The steps of the pyramid are six in number, and are about 38, 36, 349, 32, 31 and 291 feet in height; the width of each step is from six to seven feet. The lengths of the sides at the base are : north and south 352 feet, east and west 396 feet, and the actual height is 197 feet. In shape this pyramid is oblong, and its sides do not exactly face the cardinal points. The arrangement of the chambers inside this pyramid is quite peculiar to itself.

II. The Pyramid of Unås B on ), called in Egyptian Nefer-ás-u, lies to the south-east of the Step Pyramid, and was reopened and cleared out in 1881 by M. Maspero, at the expense of Messrs. Thomas Cook and Son. Its original height was about 62 feet, and the length of its sides at the base 220 feet. Owing to the broken blocks and sand which lie round about it, Vyse was unable to give exact measurements. Several attempts had been made to break into it, and one of the Arabs who took part in one of these attempts, “Aḥmed the Carpenter,” seems to have left his name inside one of the chambers in red ink. It is probable that he is the same man who opened the Great Pyramid at Gîzah, A.D. 820. A black basalt sarcophagus, from which the cover had been dragged off, and an arm, a shin bone, some ribs and fragments of the skull from the mummy of Unás, were found in the sarcophagus chamber. The walls of the two largest chambers and two of the corridors are inscribed with ritual texts and prayers of a very interesting character. Unås, the last king of the Vth dynasty, reigned about thirty years. The Mastabat al-Fir'âûn was thought by Mariette to be the tomb of Unås, but other scholars thought that the blunted pyramid'at Dahshûr was his tomb, because his name was written upon the top of it.

The Pyramid of Teta 1), called 'in Egyptian Tețásu, lies to the north-east of the Step Pyramid, and was opened in 1881. The Arabs call it the ‘Prison Pyramid,' because local tradition says that it is built near the ruins of the prison where Joseph the patriarch was confined. Its actual height is about 59 feet; the length of each side at the base is 210 feet, and the platform at the top is about 50 feet. The arrangement of the chambers and passages and the plan of construction followed is almost identical with that of the pyramid of Unås. This pyramid was broken into in ancient days, and two of the walls of the sarcophagus chamber have literally been smashed to pieces by the hammer blows of those who expected to find treasure inside them. The inscriptions, painted in green upon the walls, have the same subject matter as those inscribed upon the walls of the chambers of the pyramid of Unås. According to Manetho, Tetà, the first king of the VIth dynasty, reigned about fifty years, and was murdered by one of his guards. The Pyramids of Tcheser, Unås, and Tetà belong to the Northern Group at Şaķķâra.

The Pyramid of Pepi I. or meri, son of the Sun, Pepi,' lies to the south-west of the Step Pyramid, and forms one of the central group of pyramids at Şaşkâra, where it is called the Pyramid of Shekh Abû Manşûr; it was opened in 1880. Its actual height is about 40 feet, and the length of the sides at the base is about 250 feet; the arrangement of the chambers, etc., inside is the same as in the pyramids of Unås and Tetå, but the ornamentation is slightly different. It is the worst preserved of these pyramids, and has suffered most at the hands of the spoilers, probably because having been constructed with stones which were taken from tombs ancient already in those days, instead of stones fresh from the quarry, it was more easily injured. The granite

sarcophagus was broken to take out the mummy, fragments of which were found lying about on the ground; the cover too, smashed in pieces, lay on the ground close by. A small rose granite box, containing alabaster jars, was also found in the sarcophagus chamber. The inscriptions are, like those inscribed on the walls of the pyramids of Unás and Tetà, of a religious nature; some scholars see in them evidence that the pyramid was usurped by another Pepi, who lived at a much later period than the VIth dynasty. The pyramid of Pepi I., the third king of the Vith dynasty, who reigned, according to Manetho, fifty-three years, was called in Egyptian by the same name as Memphis, i.e., Men-nefer, and numerous priests were attached to its service. Pepi's kingdom embraced all Egypt, and he waged war against the inhabitants of the peninsula of Sinai. He is said to have set up an obelisk at Heliopolis, and to have laid the foundation of the temple at Denderah. His success as a conqueror was due in a great measure to the splendid abilities of one of his chief officers called Unå, who warred successfully against the various hereditary foes of Egypt on its southern and eastern borders.

III. The Serapeum or Apis MAUSOLEUM contained the vaults in which all the Apis bulls that lived at Memphis were buried. According to Herodotus, Apis “is the calf of a cow incapable of conceiving another offspring ; and the Egyptians say that lightning descends upon the cow from heaven, and that from thence it brings forth Apis. This calf, which is called Apis, has the following marks : it is black, and has a square spot of white on the forehead, and on the back the figure of an eagle; and in the tail double hairs; and on the tongue a beetle.” Above each tomb of an Apis bull was built a chapel, and it was the series of chapels which formed the Serapeum properly so called ; it was surrounded by walls like the other Egyptian temples, and it had pylons to which an avenue of sphinxes led. This remarkable The Pyramid of Tetà (9), called 'in Egyptian Tet-ásu, lies to the north-east of the Step Pyramid, and was opened in 1881. The Arabs call it the ‘Prison Pyramid,' because local tradition says that it is built near the ruins of the prison where Joseph the patriarch was confined. Its actual height is about 59 feet; the length of each side at the base is 210 feet, and the platform at the top is about 50 feet. The arrangement of the chambers and passages and the plan of construction followed is almost identical with that of the pyramid of Unås. This pyramid was broken into in ancient days, and two of the walls of the sarcophagus chamber have literally been smashed to pieces by the hammer blows of those who expected to find treasure inside them. The inscriptions, painted in green upon the walls, have the same subject matter as those inscribed upon the walls of the chambers of the pyramid of Unás. According to Manetho, Tetà, the first king of the VIth dynasty, reigned about fifty years, and was murdered by one of his guards. The Pyramids of Tcheser, Unås, and Tetà belong to the Northern Group at Şaķķâra.

The Pyramid of Pepi I. or( meri, son of the Sun, Pepi,' lies to the south-west of the Step Pyramid, and forms one of the central group of pyramids at Şaşkâra, where it is called the Pyramid of Shêkh Abû Manşûr; it was opened in 1880. Its actual height is about 40 feet, and the length of the sides at the base is about 250 feet; the arrangement of the chambers, etc., inside is the same as in the pyramids of Unás and Tetå, but the ornamentation is slightly different. It is the worst preserved of these pyramids, and has suffered most at the hands of the spoilers, probably because having been constructed with stones which were taken from tombs ancient already in those days, instead of stones fresh from the quarry, it was more easily injured. The granite

sarcophagus was broken to take out the mummy, fragments of which were found lying about on the ground; the cover too, smashed in pieces, lay on the ground close by. A small rose granite box, containing alabaster jars, was also found in the sarcophagus chamber. The inscriptions are, like those inscribed on the walls of the pyramids of Unás and Tetå, of a religious nature; some scholars see in them evidence that the pyramid was usurped by another Pepi, who lived at a much later period than the VIth dynasty. The pyramid of Pepi I., the third king of the Vith dynasty, who reigned, according to Manetho, fifty-three years, was called in Egyptian by the same name as Memphis, i.e., Men-nefer, and numerous priests were attached to its service. Pepi's kingdom embraced all Egypt, and he waged war against the inhabitants of the peninsula of Sinai. He is said to have set up an obelisk at Heliopolis, and to have laid the foundation of the temple at Denderah. His success as a conqueror was due in a great measure to the splendid abilities of one of his chief officers called Unå, who warred successfully against the various hereditary foes of Egypt on its southern and eastern borders.

III. The Serapeum or Apis MAUSOLEUM contained the vaults in which all the Apis bulls that lived at Memphis were buried. According to Herodotus, Apis “is the calf of a cow incapable of conceiving another offspring; and the Egyptians say that lightning descends upon the cow from heaven, and that from thence it brings forth Apis. This calf, which is called Apis, has the following marks : it is black, and has a square spot of white on the forehead, and on the back the figure of an eagle; and in the tail double hairs; and on the tongue a beetle.” Above each tomb of an Apis bull was built a chapel, and it was the series of chapels which formed the Serapeum properly so called ; it was surrounded by walls like the other Egyptian temples, and it had pylons to which an avenue of sphinxes led. This remarkable

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