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interesting to note that the name of the official who superintended these works is given-Baqet.
The scenes painted on the walls of this tomb are of great interest, and represent :-(West IVall, over the doorway) a shrine with a statue of the deceased being drawn to the tomb; (south side) carpenters, washers of clothes, boat-builders, potters, weavers, bakers, and others at work, and (middle roi') the wives and family of Khnemu-ḥetep sailing in boats to Abydos ; (north side) the storage and registration of grain, reaping, treading of corn, ploughing, gathering of grapes and other fruit, watering the garden, oxen fording a river, a fishing scene, and (middle row) the passage of the mummy of the deceased to Abydos. (North Wall) Khnemu-hetep, armed with bow and arrows, and his sons hunting in the desert ; with him went the scribe Menthu-ḥetep, who kept an account of the bag made. On the right is a large figure of Khnemu-hetep, who is accompanied by one of his sons, and by an attendant, and by three dogs, and the four lines of text above him state that he is inspecting his cattle and the produce of his lands. Of the four rows of figures before him, the first is perhaps the most important, for it illustrates a procession of foreign people who visited him in his capacity of governor of the nome.
The procession consists of 37 persons of the Aāmu, a Semitic people or tribe, and they are introduced by Neferþetep, a royal scribe, who holds in his hand a papyrus roll, on which is inscribed, “ Year 6, under the majesty of Horus, the leader of the world, the king of the South and North, Rā-Khā-Kheper (i.e., Usertsen II.). List of the Aāmu, brought by the son of the Duke Khnemu-ḥetep, on account of the eye-paint, Āāmu of Shu; a list of 37 (persons)" Behind the scribe stands the official Khati, and behind him the Āāmu chief, or desert shêkh ; these are followed by the other members of the foreign tribe. The men of the Aāmu wear beards, and carry bows and arrows, and both men and
A deputation of thirty-seven members of the Āāmu people bringing eye paint to Khnemu-ḥetep II, in the reign of
women are dressed in garments of many colours. The home of the Āāmu was situated to the east of Palestine. In this picture some have seen a representation of the arrival of Jacob's sons in Egypt to buy corn, but there is no evidence for the support of this theory ; others have identified the Āāmu with the Hyksos. The company here seen are probably merchants who brought eye-paint, spices and the like from their own country, and sold their wares to the rich officials of Egypt. On the East and South Walls is a series of scenes in which Khnemu-hetep is depicted hunting the hippopotamus, and snaring birds, and spearing fish, and receiving offerings.
No. 13. Tomb of Khnemu-ḥetep III., a royal scribe, the son of Neteru-ḥetep. This tomb consists of one small, rectangular chamber with one mummy pit. The inscriptions record the name and titles of the deceased, and petitions to those who visit the tomb to pray that abundant offerings may be made to him. This is one of the oldest tombs at Beni-Hasân, and was probably made long before the site became a general burial ground for the nobles of MenātKhufu.
No. 14. Tomb of Khnemu-hetep I., the governor of the nome of Meh, and prince of the town of MenātKhufu. His father's name and titles are unknown, and the rank of his mother Baqet is also unknown ; his wife was called Satåp, and his son Nekht succeeded to his rank, title, and dignities. He flourished during the reign of Amen-em-ḥāt I. On the south-west wall of the main chamber of this tomb is an inscription which contains the cartouches of Amen-em-ḥāt I., and which states that Khnemu-ḥetep I. went on an expedition with his king in boats to some country, probably to the south. The paintings in the tomb are much faded, but the remains of the figures of the foreigners represented are of considerable interest.
No. 15. Tomb of Baqet III., governor of the nome of Meḥ. Baqet held the rank of “ḥā” or “ duke,” and flourished before the rule of the kings of the XIIth dynasty. This tomb contains seven shafts leading to mummy chambers. The North Wall is ornamented with some interesting scenes in which men and women are seen engaged in various handicrafts and occupations, and the deceased is seen enjoying himself hunting in the desert, and fishing in the Nile. On the East Wall wrestling scenes are painted, and over two hundred positions are illustrated ; below these are illustrations of the events of a pitched battle. On the South Wall are scenes connected with the work on Baqet's estates, and pictures of men engaged in their work or amusements.
No. 17. Tomb of Khati, governor of the nome of Meḥ, and commandant of the Eastern Desert ; the main chamber is crossed by two rows of three quatrefoil columns, of the lotus bud type, and of these two remain perfect. Each column represents four lotus stems, with unopened buds, tied together below the buds, and is brilliantly painted in red, blue, and yellow. This tomb contains two shafts leading to mummy chambers, and is decorated with a large number of scenes which have, however, much in common with those in the other tombs already described.
Other inscribed tombs are :-No. 21, Tomb of Nekhta, uncle of Khnemu-ḥetep II., and governor of Meh; No. 23, Tomb of Neter-nekht, governor of the Eastern Desert, and son of the priestess Årit-ḥetep, and husband of Her-áb; No. 27, Tomb of Re-mu-shentă, chief of the nome of Meḥ; No. 29, Tomb of Baqet I., chief of the nome of Meḥ; and No. 33, Tomb of Baqet II., who held the same office.*
In December, 1902, Mr. John Garstang began a systematic excavation of the cemetery at Beni-Hasân, or at least of that
* See the Egypt Exploration Fund's Memoirs entitled Beni Hasan, 4 parts, London, 1893–1899.
portion of it which remained untouched by the Egypt Exploration Fund. By May, 1903, the number of tombs which he examined was about 500, and by March, 1904, this number had risen to 888. A description of certain typical tombs was published by him in Annales du Service, tom. v, p. 215 ff., and we are promised a full account of his operations in a volume which we hope will appear at no distant date.
In the tomb of “ Roteï,” at Beni Hasân, M. G. Legrain found inscribed the initials “J.F.C.,” which were placed there by Jean François Champollion when he was copying inscriptions in Egypt about 1830. They were very faint, but thanks to the “restoration ” of M. Legrain they are now easily legible.
Rôda, 176 miles from Cairo, and the seat of a large sugar manufactory, lies on the west bank of the river, just opposite Shekh 'Abâdah, or Antinoë, a town built by Hadrian, and named by him after Antinous, * who was drowned here in the Nile. To the south of Antinoë lies the convent of Abů Honnês (Father John), and in the districts in the immediate neighbourhood are the remains of several Coptic buildings which date back to the fifth century of our era. A little to the south-west of Rôda, lying inland, are the remains of the city of Hermopolis Magna, called in Egyptian - @
, Khemennu, in Coptic Shmûn, cyelorit, and in Arabic Ashmûnên; the tradition which attributes the building of this city to Ashmûn, son of Mișr, is worthless. The Greeks called it Hermopolis, because the Egyptians there worshipped Thoth, I, the scribe of the gods, who was named by the Greeks Hermes. A little distance from the town is the spot where large numbers of the ibis, a bird sacred to Thoth, were buried.
* A Bithynian youth, a favourite of the Emperor Hadrian.