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Dynasty XXII., Libyans who ruled the country from

Bubastis ( Tell-Basța).
The founder of the family. of the kings of the

XXIInd dynasty was a Libyan called Buiuuaua

966. Shashanq (Shishak) I. (see i Kings xiv. 25-28 ;

2 Chron. xii. 2-13) besieged Jerusalem, and having conquered it, pillaged the Temple and carried away much spoil. Thus Palestine became once

again subject to Egypt. 933. Uasarken I. 900. Thekeleth I. Under the rule of these kings 866. Uasarken II. Egypt finally lost most of her 833. Shashanq II. I foreign possessions, and the

Thekeleth II. feebleness of their rule made

Shashang III. her an easy prey for the war800. Pamai.

like. Shashanq IV.

Dynasty XXIII., from Tanis. 766. Petā-Bast.

Uasarkená III. In the reign of this king Piānkhi

the Ethiopian invaded Egypt, and a full account of his conquest is found on the stele which he set up at Gebel Barkal. The text gives a detailed account of the expedition of this king into Egypt and of his conquest of that country. It was reported to Piānkhi in the 21st year of his reign, that the governors of the northern towns had made

B.C. 766.

a league together and had revolted against his authority. He set out for Egypt with his soldiers, and when he arrived at Thebes he made offerings to Amen-Rā, and commanded his soldiers to pay proper homage to the god. Passing northwards from Thebes he captured city after city, and finally besieged Memphis, which he soon captured, and thus made himself master of Egypt. The details of the capture of the towns, the speeches of the king and of his vassal princes, and the general information contained in the narrative, give this inscription an importance possessed by few others. Piānkhi was the founder of the first native Nubian kingdom, and made Napata his capital. The order of the reigns of his successors is unknown.

Dynasty XXIV., from Saïs (el-ħagar). 733. Bak-en-ren-f (Bocchoris). Whilst Bak-en-ren-f

was reigning in the Delta, there ruled at Thebes Kashta, a Nubian, who may have been a son, or grandson, of Piānkhi. He married Shep-enApt, the high-priestess of Åmen, and thus legalised his position as king of Egypt. He had issue Shabaka, who became king, and Amenårţās

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Lynasty XXV., from Ethiopia (Nubia). 700. Shabaka. Some think that this king is to be

identified with the so of the Bible (see 2 Kings xvii. 4), but there is no satisfactory evidence for so doing. Shabaka's sister was Queen Amenårtās, who married the Nubian Prince Piānkhi.

B.C. 700. Shabataka. He was defeated by Sennacherib at

the Battle of Altaķu, and was subsequently deposed by Tirhakah, who cast him into prison, and is said

to have had him murdered. 693. Taharqa (Tirhakah, 2 Kings xix. 9) is famous for

having conquered Sennacherib and delivered Hezekiah; he was, however, defeated by Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, the son and grandson of Sennacherib. He built a temple at Gebel Barkal, which is now in ruins, and another at Semnah. The latter was discovered and excavated by Mr. J. W. Crowfoot and the writer in 1905, and the objects found in it are now in the Museum at Khartûm. He was succeeded by TanuathAmen, the Tandamanie of the cuneiform inscriptions, who was compelled to flee before Ashurbanipal.

Dynasty XXVI., from Saïs. 666. Psemthek I. (Psammetichus) was the son of

Nekau, whom Ashurbanipal had appointed Governor of Saïs and Memphis. He allowed Greeks to settle in the Delta, and employed Greek soldiers to fight for him. He protected his country by garrisons stationed ať Elephantine, Pelusium, Daphnæ, and Marea. He added a large gallery,

with side chambers, to the Serapeum. 612. Nekau II. (Necho) defeated Josiah, king of Judah,

and was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar II. son of Nabopolassar, king of Babylon. See 2 Kings xxiii. 29 ff; Jeremiah xlvi. 2. He maintained a large army, which was largely recruited from the Greeks, and he was a great patron of all trading enterprises. He began to clear out and enlarge the

B.C.

canal between the Nile and the Red Sea, a work which was probably intended to facilitate the

movements of his fleets. 596. Psammetichus II. 591. Uah-åb-Rā (Hophra of the Bible, Gr. Apries)

marched to the help of Zedekiah, king of Judah, who was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar II. See Jeremiah xliv. 30. His army rebelled against him, and he was dethroned ; Amāsis, a general in

his army, then succeeded to the throne. 572. Aāhmes or Amāsis II. favoured the Greeks, and

granted them many privileges; in his reign

Naucratis became a great city, 528. Psammetichus III. was defeated at Pelusium by

Cambyses the Persian, and taken prisoner ; he was afterwards slain for rebellion against the Persians.

Dynasty XXVII., from Persia. 527. Cambyses marched against the Nubians and the

inhabitants of the Oases. He was a contemporary of the Nubian king Năstasen, or Nástasenen, who, in the account of his reign which he caused to be cut on a stele, now in the Berlin Museum, states that he defeated and overthrew the army of an enemy, whom he calls Kambasuțent

* mm m. There seems to be little doubt that these hieroglyphics represent the name “Cambyses.” If this be so, there is good reason for believing that Cambyses advanced into Nubia and reached some place near the Third Cataract before he was made to retreat before Nástasen. It also seems to show that he B.C. followed the course of the Nile, and did not

attempt to cross the Abû Hamed desert. The army which he sent against the Oasis of Siwa (Jupiter Ammon) was overwhelmed by a sand storm in the desert, probably soon after it left the Oasis of Khârgah. He is said to have committed

suicide. 521. Darius I. (Hystaspes) endeavoured to open up

the ancient routes of commerce ; he established a coinage, and adopted a conciliatory and tolerant system of government, and favoured all attempts to promote the welfare of Egypt. He completed the digging of the canal to join the Nile with the Red Sea, which had been begun by Necho. He

built a temple at Hebt, in the Oasis of Khârgah. 486. Xerxes I., the Great. He suppressed the revolt which

was headed by Khabbesha

465. Artaxerxes I., during whose reign the Egyptians

revolted, headed by Inarôs. In the battle of Papremis, the Persians were defeated, and

Akhaemenes, the Satrap of Egypt, was killed. 425. Darius II. (Nothus), during whose reign the

Egyptians revolted successfully, and Amyrtæus

became king of Egypt. 405. Artaxerxes II.

Dynasty XXVIII., from Sais. Amen-ruţ (Amyrtæus), reigned six years.

Dynasty XXIX., from Mendesa 399. Naifāaurut I. 393. Haker.

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