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identified QĀ with the king of the ist dynasty who is usually called Qebḥ. The identifications of ĀŅA with Menes, and NARMER with Teta, and Tcha with Ateth, and MER-Nit with Ata, kings of the ist dynasty, at present need further evidence. Some of these are more probably pre-dynastic kings.

Farsbût, 368 miles from Cairo, on the west bank of the river, called in Coptic BeproOTT, contains a sugar factory.

At Nag' Hamâdî, 373 miles from Cairo, is the iron railway bridge across the Nile. It is 1,362 feet long.

Kasr eş-Şayyâd, or “the hunter's castle,” 376 miles from Cairo, on the east bank of the river, marks the site of the ancient Chenoboscion, i.e., the “Goose-pen," or place where geese were kept in large numbers and fattened for market. The Copts call the town cenECHT, which is probably a corruption of some old Egyptian name, meaning the place where geese were fattened. The town is famous in Coptic annals as the place where Pachomius (he died about A.D. 349, aged 57 years) embraced Christianity, and a few miles to the south of it stood the great monastery of Tabenna, which he founded. In the neighbourhood are a number of interesting tombs of the Early Empire.


DENDERAH.* ķana, 4051 miles from Cairo, on the east bank of the river, is the capital of the province of the same name. This city is famous for its dates, and for the trade which it + The Greek Tentyra, or Tentyris, is derived from the Egyptian

Ta-en-la-rert; the name is

also written

carries on with the Arabian peninsula, and for its manufactories of the drinking bottle called “ Ķullah,” commonly pronounced "gullah.”

A short distance from the river, on the west bank, a little to the north of the village of Denderah, stands the Temple of Denderah, which marks the site of the classical Tentyra or Tentyris, called TENTWPE by the Copts, where the goddess Hathor was worshipped. During the Middle Empire quantities of flax and linen fabrics were produced at Tentyra, and it gained some reputation thereby. In very ancient times Khufu, or Cheops, a king of the IVth dynasty, founded a temple here, but it seems never to have become of much importance,* probably because it lay so close to the famous shrines of Abydos and Thebes. The wonderfully preserved Temple now standing there is probably not older than the beginning of our era; indeed, it cannot, in any case, be older than the time of the later Ptolemies : hence it must be considered as the architectural product of a time when the ancient Egyptian traditions of sculpture were already dead and nearly forgotten. It is, however, a majestic monument, and worthy of careful examination.t Strabo says (Bk. xvii., ch. i. 44) of this town and its inhabitants : “Next to Abydos is ... ... the city Tentyra, where the crocodile is held in peculiar abhorrence, and is regarded as the most odious of all animals. For the other Egyptians, although acquainted with its mischievous disposition, and

* M. Mariette thought that a temple to Hathor existed at Denderah during the XIIth, XVIIIth and XIXth dynasties.

+ “Accessible comme il l'est aujourd'hui jusque dans la dernière de ses chambres, il semble se présenter au visiteur comme un livre qu'il n'a qu'à ouvrir et à consulter. Mais le temple de Dendérah est, en somme, un monument terriblement complexe.... Il faudrait plusieurs années pour copier tout ce vaste ensemble, et il faudrait vingt volumes du format (folio !) de nos quatre volumes de planches pour le publier." -Mariette, Dendérah, Description Générale, p. 10.

hostility towards the human race, yet worship it, and abstain from doing it harm. But the people of Tentyra track and destroy it in every way. Some, however, as they say of the Psyllians of Cyrenæa, possess a certain natural antipathy to snakes, and the people of Tentyra have the same dislike to crocodiles, yet they suffer no injury from them, but dive and cross the river when no other person ventures to do so. When crocodiles were brought to Rome to be exhibited, they were attended by some of the Tentyritæ. A reservoir was made for them with a sort of stage on one of the sides, to form a basking place for them on coming out of the water, and these persons went into the water, drew them in a net to the place, where they might sun themselves and be exhibited, and then dragged them back again to the reservoir. The people of Tentyra worship Venus. At the back of the fane of Venus is a temple of Isis ; then follow what are called Typhoneia, and the canal leading to Coptos, a city common both to the Egyptians and Arabians.” (Falconer's translation.)

On the walls and on various other parts of the temples are the names of several of the Roman Emperors; the famous portraits of Cleopatra and Cæsarion her son are on the end wall of the exterior. Passing along a dromos for about 250 feet, the portico, A, open at the top, and supported by twenty-four Hathor-headed columns, arranged in six rows, is reached. Leaving this hall by the doorway facing the entrance, the visitor arrives in a second hall, B, having six coluinns and three small chambers on each side. The two chambers C and D have smaller chambers on the right and left, E was the so-called sanctuary, and in F the emblem of the god worshipped in the temple was placed. From a room on each side of C a staircase led up to the roof. The purposes for which the chambers were used are stated by M. Mariette in his Dendérah, Descrip. Gén. du Grand Temple de cette ville. On the ceiling of the portico is the

famous “Zodiac," which was thought to have been made in acient Egyptian times; the Greek inscription=A.D. 35,

written in the LS

twenty-first year of Tiberius, and the names of the Roman Emperors, have clearly proved that, like that at Esna, it belongs to the Roman time. The Zodiac from Denderah, now at Paris, was cut out, with the permission of

M u ḥ a mmad 'Ali, in 1821, from the small temple of Osiris, generally called the “Temple on the Roof."

The Ise

ium is sitPlan of the Temple at Denderah.

uated to the south of the temple of Hathor, and consists of three chambers and a corridor ; near by is a pylon which was dedicated to Isis in the 31st year of Cæsar Augustus.


The Mammisi, 7 9, Per-mestu, or “ house of giving birth,” also built by Augustus, is the name given to the celestial dwelling where the goddess was supposed to have brought forth the third person of the triad which was adored in the temple close by.

The Typhonium stands to the north of the Temple of Hathor, and was so named because the god Bes , figures of whom occur on its walls, was confused with Typhon ; it measures about 120 feet x 60 feet, and is surrounded by a peristyle of twenty-two columns.

The Temple of Denderah was nearly buried among the rubbish which centuries had accumulated round about it, and a whole village of wretched mud-huts actually stood upon the roof! The excavation of this fine monument was undertaken and completed by M. Mariette, who published many of the texts and scenes inscribed upon its walls in his work mentioned above.

The crocodile was worshipped at Kom Ombo, and Juvenal gives an account of a fight which took place between the people of this place and those of Denderah, in which one of the former stumbled, while running along, and was caught by his foes, cut up, and eaten.

A few miles beyond Denderah, on the east bank of the river, lies the town of Kust, the Al Qebt of the hieroglyphics, and KEGT of the Copts; it was the principal city in the Coptites nome, and was the Thebaïs Secunda of the Itineraries. From Ķofț the road which crossed the desert to Berenice on the Red Sea started, and the merchandise which passed through the town from the east, and the stone from the famous porphyry quarries in the Arabian desert must have made it wealthy and important. It held the position of a port on the Nile for merchandise from a very carly period; and there is no doubt that every Egyptian

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