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passing through a smaller chamber with four columns, the shrine of Alexander the Great is reached. In the time of Amenophis III. it contained four columns, but these Alexander removed, and turned it into a shrine in place of the old shrine which was originally in the last room of the building. In the centre a rectangular building open at both ends was built, and within this was carefully preserved the sacred boat of Rā, wherein was seated a figure of the god. The walls of this shrine are ornamented with reliefs, in which Amenophis III, is seen adoring the various gods of Thebes; the ceiling is decorated with figures of vultures and a large number of five-rayed stars painted in yellow on a blue ground. Through a doorway on the left in the sanctuary, and through a second doorway immediately on the left of it, the chamber on which is depicted the Birth of Amenophis III. is reached; the roof of the chamber is supported by three columns with lotus capitals. Here on the west wall are the following scenes, arranged in three rows :
First or Lowest Row. 1. Khnemu, seated opposite Isis, fashioning the body of the young king and his ka or double upon a potter's wheel; he predicts that the child shall be king of Egypt. 2. Amen and Khnemu holding converse. 3. Àmen and Mut-en-ua, wife of Thothmes IV., and mother of Amenophis III., holding converse in the presence of the goddesses Selq, or Serq, and Neith. In the text the god Amen declares that he had taken the form of the husband of Mut-em-ua and that he is the father of the child who is to be born. 4. Amen and Thothmes IV. 5. Mut-em-ua being embraced by the goddess Isis in the presence of Amen. Second or Middle Row. 1. Thoth telling the queen that Amen has given her a son. 2. The queen being great with child, is being sustained by Khnemu and Isis, who make her to breathe “life.” 3. The child is born in the presence of Thoueris, the goddess of children, and Bes, the driver away of evil spirits from the bed of birth. 4. Isis offering the child to Amen, who addresses him as “son of the Sun.” 5. The child Amenopbis III, seated on the knees of Amen, whilst his destiny is being decreed in the presence of Isis or Hathor; Mut offers to him a palm branch, at the end of which is the emblem of festivals. Amen declares that he will give him “millions of years, like the Sun." Third or Top Row. 1. The queen seated on the bed of birth, and the child being suckled by Hathor in the form of a cow. 2. The seven Hathors (?) and two goddesses. 3. The Niles of the South and North purifying the child. 4. Horus presenting the king and his ka to Amen. 5. The gods Khnemu and Anubis. 6. The king and his ka seated and also standing before Ámen. 7. Amenophis seated on his throne. The scenes on the south wall refer to the acknowledgment of his sovereignty by the gods of Egypt. The remaining chambers of the temple are not of any special interest. It will be noted that the idea of the scenes of the Birth Chamber is copied from the temple of Hātshepset at Dêr el-Baħarî.
II. The Temple at Karnak. The ruins of the buildings at Karnak are perhaps the most wonderful of any in Egypt, and they merit many visits from the traveller. It is probable that this spot was "holy ground” from a very early to a very late period, and we know that a number of kings from Usertsen I. to Euergetes II. lavished much wealth to make splendid the famous shrine of Amen in the Åpts, and other temples situated there. The temples of Luxor and Karnak were united by an avenue about 6,500 feet long and 80 feet wide, on each side of which was arranged a row of sphinxes; from the fact that these monuments are without names, M. Mariette thought that the avenue was constructed at the expense of the priests or the wealthy inhabitants of the town, just as in later days the
1. Karnak before the time of Thothmes I., B.C. 1633. 2. Karnak during the reign of Thothmes I. 3. Karnak during the reign of Queen Hātshepset, E.C. 16co.
From Mariette, Karnak, Pl. VI.
pronaos of the temple at Denderah was built by the people of that town. At the end of this avenue, to the right, is a road which leads to the so-called Temple of Mut,* which was also approached by an avenue of sphinxes. Within the enclosure there stood originally two temples, both of which were dedicated to Amen, built during the reign of Amenophis III. ; Rameses II. erected two obelisks in front of the larger temple. To the north-west of these a smaller temple was built in Ptolemaic times, and the ruins on one side of it show that the small temples which stood there were either founded or restored by Rameses II., Osorkon, Thekeleth, Sabaco, Nectanebus I., and the Ptolemies. Behind the temple enclosure are the remains of a temple dedicated to Ptaḥ of Memphis by Thothmes III. ; the three doors behind it and the courts into which they lead were added by Sabaco, Tirhakah, and the Ptolemies.
Returning to the end of the avenue of sphinxes which leads from Luxor to Karnak, a second smaller avenue orna mented with a row of ram-headed sphinxes on each side is entered ; at the end of it stands the splendid pylon built by Ptolemy IX, Euergetes II. Passing through the door, a smaller avenue of sphinxes leading to the temple built by
* In the Temple of Mut, by permission of the authorities, Miss Margaret Benson carried out some excavations, and in the first court discovered an almost perfect black granite squatting statue of a scribe called Amen-em-ḥāt. On the front were several lines of well cut hieroglyphics containing prayers to the various great gods of Thebes, and the cartouches on it of Amenophis II. show that the deceased Avurished during the first half of the XVIIIth dynasty, about B.C. 1550. The statue is about two feet high, and probably stood in a prontinent place in the temple with which he was associated. This site had been dug through more than once by Mariette and by natives, and Miss Benson's “find” indicates that the neighbouring ground should le explored once again. Further excavations by Miss Benson brought 10 light about forty Sekhet figures, and cartouches of Rameses II., Rameses III., Rameses IV., Rameses VI., and Shishak I. inscribed upon statues and walls.
Rameses III. is reached ; the small avenue of sphinxes and eight of its columns were added by Rameses XIII. This temple was dedicated to Khonsu, and appears to have been built upon the site of an ancient temple of the time of Amenophis III. To the west of this temple is a smaller temple built by Ptolemy IX, Euergetes II.
The great Temple of. Amen at Karnak fronted the Nile, and was approached by means of a small avenue of ramheaded sphinxes which were placed in position by Rameses II. Passing through the first propylon, a court or hall, having a double row of pillars down the centre, is entered ; on each side is a corridor with a row
Ptolemaïc gateway at Karnak. of columns. On
(From a photograph by A. Beato, of Luxor.) the right hand (south) side are the ruins of a temple built by Rameses III., and on the left are those of another built by Seti II. This court or hall was the work of Shashang, the first king of the XXIInd dynasty. On each side of the steps leading through the second pylon was a colossal