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depicted; but the fidelity to nature, and the spirit and skill with which these bas-reliefs have been executed, make them some of the most remarkable sculptures known. The scene in which Seti I. is shown grasping the hair of the heads of a number of people, in the act of slaying them, is symbolic.

The outside of the south wall is ornamented with a large scene in which Shashang (Shishak), the first king of the XXIInd dynasty, is represented smiting a group of kneeling prisoners; the god Åmen, in the form of a woman, is standing by presenting him with weapons of war. Here also are 150 cartouches, surmounted by heads, in which are written the names of the towns captured by Shishak. The type of features given to these heads by the sculptor shows that the vanquished peoples belonged to a branch of the great Semitic family. The hieroglyphics in one of the cartouches were supposed to read “the king of Judah,” and to represent Jeroboam, who was vanquished by Shishak: it has now been proved conclusively that they form the name of a place called Iuta-melek. Passing along to the cast, the visitor comes to a wall at right angles to the first, upon which is inscribed a copy of the poem of Pen-ta-urt, celebrating the victory of Rameses II. over the Kheta, in the fifth year of his reign; and on the west side of the wall is a stele on which is set forth a copy of the offensive and defensive treaty between this king and the prince of the Kheta.

The inscriptions on the magnificent ruins at Karnak show that from the time of Usertsen I., B.C. 2433, to that of Alexander II. of Egypt, B.C. 312 (?), the chief religious centre* of Upper Egypt was at Thebes, and that the most powerful of the kings of Egypt who reigned during this period spared neither

The short-lived heresy of the worship of the disk of the Sun instead of that of Amen-Rā would not interfere with the general popularity of Theban temples.

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Karnak under the Ptolemies. From Mariette, Karnak, Pl. VII. A. Walls standing before the time of Thothmes I. J. Temple of Seti II. B. Pylons built by Thothmes I.

K. Temple of Rameses III. c Walls and obelisks of Hatshepset.

L. Gateway of Rameses IX. D, Walls, pylon, etc., of Thothmes III.

M. Pillars and walls of the XXIInd dynasty E. Gateway of Thothmes IV.

N. Pillars of Tirhakah. F. Pylon of Amenophis III.

0. Corridor of Philip Ul. of Macedon. G. Pylon of Rameses I.

P, Chamber and shrine of Alexander II H, Walls and columns of Seti I.

Q. Pylon built by the Ptolemies. 1. Columns, walls, and statue of Rameses II.

pains nor expense in adding to and beautifying the temples there. In fact, it was as much a pleasure as a duty for a king to repair the old buildings of the famous shrine of Karnak, or to build new ones, for the walls and pylons of that ancient sanctuary constituted a book of fame in the best and greatest sense in the opinion of the Egyptians. The fury of the elements, the attacks of Egypt's enemies, and the yearly rise of the Nile have all contributed powerfully towards the destruction of these splendid buildings; but what has helped most of all to injure them is the weakness of the foundations of their walls and columns, and the insufficiency of their bases. So long as the columns were partly buried in earth and rubbish, very little strain was put upon them, and they appeared sound enough ; but when the masses of earth which surrounded their bases were removed, experts declared that a number of them would fall. In 1899 eleven of the columns in the Great Hall at Karnak did fall, and an examination of their foundations showed the reasons, viz., insufficiency of base, poor foundations, and to these may be added, as Sir W. Garstin said, unstable equilibrium of the soil caused by alteration of the levels of the Nile. Much injury has, of course, also been caused to the stones of the columns by the salts which were present in the masses of earth which formerly surrounded them. It is satisfactory to be able to state that funds have been found by Lord Cromer, and that the il columns have been re-erected to their full height. Each stone has been placed in its former position, and the work of replacing the capitals and the architraves is being carried out in such a way that the restored columns will not be over-weighted. This fine piece of restoration has been effected by M. George Legrain, who has been in charge of the work from the beginning He has rebuilt the columns very skilfully, without accident or damage to a single stone, and his energy and devotion to the work deserve the gratitude of all lovers of antiquity. Under his care, excavation and restoration have gone hand in hand, and, when his work is finished, the best result is to be anticipated. During the course of the work at Karnak, M. Legrain made a "find" of statues of unparalleled historical interest; as Sir William Garstin says, nothing like it has been made since Mariette Pâshâ's excavations at the Serapeum. It seems that in 1883 M. Maspero sank some trial shafts near the seventh pylon of the Temple of Karnak, and was rewarded by the discovery of a large number of pieces of statues, and architectural fragments of considerable size. In 1901 and 1902, M. Legrain began work at this place, and, among other things, found several fine reliefs of Amen-ḥetep I. Inasmuch as these reliefs showed no signs of the hammering out of the name of Åmen which took place in the reign of Åmen-hetep IV, it was clear that they had been cast down from their places in the reign of some earlier king of the XVIIIth dynasty. Subsequently monuments of the reign of Hātshepset and Thothmes III were discovered, and later a statue of the period of Seti I. In 1903, when the work was continued, M. Legrain discovered a vast pit literally filled with statues which had been cast into it by the order of some king who was about to repair or enlarge the Temple of Karnak. As a result of the excavations of 1903, M. Legrain brought up out of the pit 457 statues in granite, alabaster, calcareous stone, basalt, breccia, quartz, mother-of-emerald, sandstone, petrified wood, etc. ; 7 stone sphinxes, 5 sacred animals, 15 stelæ in granite, etc. ; 3 figures of Osiris in lead and 40 in stone ; and 8,000 bronze figures of Osiris and other gods; in all 8,519 objects. Work was resumed in 1905, and 170 more statues were discovered, and 8,000 figures of Osiris in bronze, etc., all 8,268 objects. The oldest statue found clearly belongs dynasty was found the statue of a king called MENTHUHETEP

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Of the XIth

with the prenomen of Mer-ānkh


f), and a portion of a statue of a king called Se-ānkh-ka-Ra on fu).

Of kings of the XIIIth and XIVth dynasties the "find” at Karnak supplies the following rare names :KHU-TAUI-RA

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2) MER-SEKHEM-RĀ Nefera,



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fragment of a small obelisk also supplies the Horus name


2999 HETEP-Neteru, and a

portion of his prenomen. Statues of the XVIIIth dynasty are numerous, and the most important of them historically is that of Tut-ānkh-Åmen, which was usurped by Heru-emheb. The statues which belong to the XXIInd dynasty are of great value historically, and supply a number of important data, which enable us to fix the order of some of its kings with considerable accuracy. Of a later period the statues of king Tirhâşâh and the princess Ankh-nes-neferåb-Rā are of special interest, and we learn that the prenomen of the latter was MUT-HEQ-NEFERT

Of the circumstances under which these statues were buried we know nothing, but care appears to have been taken to prevent any breakage of them on a large scale, and honourable oblivion was afforded them. It is too early yet 10 attempt to summarize the results which the inscriptions on these statues will yield, and we must wait for the catalogue of them which, we understand, is in preparation by

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