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was said to issue every morning when the sun rose. The upper part of it was thrown down by an earthquake, it is said, about B.C. 27.; the damage was partially repaired during the reign of Septimius Severus, who restored the head and shoulders of the figure by adding to it five layers of stone. When Strabo was at Thebes with Ælius Gallus he heard "a noise at the first hour of the day, but whether proceeding from the base or from the colossus, or produced on purpose by some of those standing round the base, I cannot confidently assert.” It is said that after the colossus was repaired no sound issued from it. Some think that the noise was caused by the sun's rays striking upon the stone, while others believe that a priest hidden in the colossus produced it by striking a stone. The inscriptions show that many distinguished Romans visited the “ vocal Memnon” and heard the sound; one Petronianus, of a poetical turn of mind, stated that it made a sighing sound in complaining to its mother, the dawn, of the injuries inflicted upon it by Cambyses. The inscriptions on the back of the colossi give the names of Amenophis III.
IV. Madînat Habû.—This village lies to the south of the colossi, and its foundation dates from Coptic times. The early Christians established themselves around the ancient Egyptian temple there, and having carefully plastered over the wall sculptures in one of its chambers, they used it as a chapel. Round and about this temple many Greek and Coptic inscriptions have been found, which prove that the Coptic community here was one of the largest and most important in Upper Egypt. The Egyptian name of the site was Àat-tcha-Mutet
, which the Copts turned into XHE. The principal buildings at Madînat Habû are:The Little Temple, the chapels built by royal personages in the XXVIth dynasty, the “ Pavilion of Rameses III.," and
the Great Temple. The collection of buildings which forms the Little Temple belongs to various periods, the oldest dating from the reigns of the early kings of the XVIIIth dynasty (Thothmes II. and III.), and the most recent from the time of the Roman rule over Egypt. The paved courtyard (A) is the work of the Roman period, and in it are inscriptions which record the addresses made to various gods by the Emperor Antoninus. The pylon (c), which was built by Ptolemy X. and Ptolemy XIII., is reached by crossing a smaller court (B), also of the Roman period; the reliefs upon it represent these kings making offerings to the great gods of Egypt, and below them is the text of a hymn to the Sun. This pylon leads to the courtyard built by Nectanebus II. (D), and to the pylon built at the end of it by royal Ethiopian personages (E). The scenes on the walls of the court of Nectanebus represent the king slaughtering prisoners, processions of the personifications of nomes, the king making offerings, etc. The pylon was built by Shabaka, and additions were made by Tirhâşâh, Nectanebus II., and Ptolemy X. Beyond this pylon is another courtyard, of uncertain date, containing 16 pillars, eight on each side (F). The oldest part of the building is the XVIIIth dynasty temple (G), which consists of a shrine chamber (H), open at each end, and surrounded by an open gallery, and a group of six small chambers beyond (I). The royal name most frequently found on the temple is that of Rameses III., who added several reliefs, in which he is represented making offerings to the gods. In the open gallery are the names of Thothmes III., Heru-em-heb, Seti I. and Ptolemy Physkon; on one of the pillars is a text showing that Thothmes III. dedicated the temple to Menthu, the lord of Thebes. Repairs were carried out on some of the pillars in this gallery by Queen Åmenårțâs and Achoris. On the walls of the shrine chamber Thothmes III. and Ptolemy Physkon are depicted making offerings to the gods of Thebes, and the inscriptions show that the chamber was rebuilt by the latter king. In one of the chambers beyond is an unfinished red granite shrine in which the boat or emblem of the god Åmen-Rā was kept. The Little Temple was, like all other temples, enclosed within a wall of unbaked bricks, but its extent and outline were modified at different periods to suit the rearrangements made by the various kings who restored old buildings or added new ones to the site.
To the left of the Little Temple and the Pavilion of Rameses III. lie the Temple of Queen Amenártás, the daughter of Kashta, and three small chapels dedicated by Shep-en-áp, daughter of Piānkhi, Meḥt-en-usekht, wife of Psammetichus I., and Nit-qert (Nitocris), daughter of Psammetichus I. The scenes on the walls of the chapels are of the same class as those on the Temple of Amenårtás, and, though interesting, are of no great importance.
The Pavilion of Rameses III. is a most interesting and instructive building, for it represents an attempt to reproduce in Egypt a small fort or strong city of the class with which the Egyptians must have become familiar in their campaigns against the Kheta and other allied peoples in Northern Syria. It seems to have been designed to take the place of a pylon, and to have been intended to add to the dignity and grandeur of the Great Temple of Rameses III., which lay beyond it. It was approached through an opening in the eastern side of the great unbaked mud brick wall, some 30 feet high and 30 feel thick, with which this king surrounded the temple buildings at Madinat Habú. In front of the building was a stone crenelated wall, nearly ten feet thick and eleven feet high, with a doorway nearly five feet wide, and in each side of this was a small room which served as a guard chamber. On the outside of these chambers are scenes representing Rameses III. and Rameses IV. making offerings to the
gods. The Pavilion consists of two large rectangular towers, about 26 feet wide, and, when complete, their height must have been about 72 feet; the distance between them is about 22 ft. 6 in. The walls behind them open out and form a small court, but they soon contract, and becoming still narrower, at length the two wings of the building unite; in the portion where they unite is a door, above which are two windows. On each side of the stone walls which remain are a number of chambers built of brick, and it appears that these filled the whole of the thickness of the great mud brick wall which enclosed all the temple buildings. The wall of the front of the pavilion slopes backwards, and its lower part rests upon a low foundation wall which slopes rapidly. On the south tower are reliefs representing Rameses III. clubbing his enemies in the presence of Harmachis, who hands him a sword. The peoples depicted here are the Ethiopians and the tribes that lived in the deserts to the west of the Nile ; and those on the north tower are the Kheta, the Ameru, the Tchakari, the Shardana of the sea, the Shakalasha, the Tursha of the sea, and the Pulasta, i.e., the sea-coast dwellers of Phænicia and the neighbouring coasts and islands (?). The scenes on the towers represent the king bringing his prisoners before Amen-Rā, and the texts give the words spoken by the god and the king and the chiefs of the vanquished peoples. In the widest part of the space between the towers are scenes depicting Rameses III. making offerings to the gods Ånher-Shu, Tefnut, Temu, Iusáāset, Ptaḥ, Sekhet, Thoth, etc. On the walls further in the king is being led to Amen by Menthu and Temu, and he receives a crown from Amen, whilst Thoth inscribes his name upon a palm-branch for long years of life. The entrance to the upper rooms was by a staircase in the south tower. The walls of the rooms are decorated with scenes in which the king is seen sur