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The site which she chose for the temple was holy ground, for ruins of a building, which was probably a funerary temple of Menthu-hetep III. Neb-ḥap-Rā, a king of the XIth dynasty,

found to the south-west of the open space

which the queen built her temple. The whole temple was surrounded by an enclosing wall, most of which has disappeared, and was approached by means of an avenue of sphinxes. It was entered through a pylon, in front of which stood two obelisks. Passing through this pylon the visitor, the following

目尼 The Temple of Hātshepset at Dêr al-Baħarî.

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pathway, arrived at an incline which led to the raised colonnade of the Eastern Terrace (A). The bas-reliefs on its wall were protected by a roof (B), supported by one row of rectangular pillars, and by one row of polygonal pillars. From the centre of this platform (c) an inclined plane or flight of steps led to the Western Terrace (D), and the face of the supporting wall was protected by a portico (E), formed by two rows of square pillars. At each end of the portico are rock-cut shrines, which are approached through a twelve-columned portico, the roof of which is in perfect preservation. The Northern Shrine is decorated with religious scenes, and the Southern or Hathor Shrine, which is entered through a covered vestibule having pillars with Hathor-headed capitals, contains scenes relating to the rejoicings which took place at Thebes on the return of the queen's successful expedition to Punt. Everywhere will be seen the marks of the erasure of the queen's name which was carried out by Thothmes III. her ward, who hated Hātshepset with a deadly hatred ; in many places will be found marks of the vandalism of Amenophis IV., who erased the name and figure of the god Åmen from the walls, because he hated this god and preferred to worship Åten ; and everywhere will be seen the cartouche of Rameses II., who, because in places he tried to repair the mischief done by Amenophis IV., added his own name wherever possible. At the end of the building is a small rectangular court, which is entered through a granite gateway, and directly opposite it is a rock-hewn shrine with a vaulted roof. The plan of the temple given on p. 609 is from Mariette's work," and will be found useful; from it, however, the reader would think that the northern part of the buildings on the Western Terrace was similar to that on the south, but this is not so. The total length of the whole building, not including the Avenue of Sphinxes, was about 800 feet.

* Deir-el-Bahari, Leipzig, 1877.

Hatshepset, the builder of the temple, was the daughter of Thothmes I. and of his half-sister Åāhmes, and the granddaughter of Amenophis I.; her father, however, had another wife, Mut-nefert, called Senseneb, who bore him a son, Thothmes II., who married Åset, or Isis, a woman of low rank, who bore him a

son, Thothmes III. Hātshepset was half-sister to Thothmes II. and aunt to Thothmes III., and she became the wife of the former and the guardian of the latter, her stepson. The inscriptions on her temple record that she was associated with her father, Thothmes I., in the rule of the kingdom, and that she herself was enthroned at a very early age. From her childhood she is always represented in male attire, and in the inscriptions masculine pronouns and verbal forms are used in speaking of her, and masculine attributes, including a beard, are ascribed to her; only when considered as a goddess is she represented in female form. She reigned for about 16 years, and the chief event of her reign, omitting the building of the temple, was the famous expedition to Punt, a general name of the district which probably reached from the coast of Somaliland to the Southern Súdân. The queen sent five ships to the coast of Africa, and M. Maspero believes that they were sailed by their crews up the Elephant River, near Cape Guardafui, and made fast near one of the native villages inland. Then followed the exchange of objects brought from Egypt for native produce, and the natives appear to have given large quantities of gold in return for almost valueless articles.

The bas-reliefs which illustrate these scenes are found on - the southern half of the wall which supports the Western

Terrace, and it is easy to see that what the natives are giving to the Egyptians is both valuable and bulky. The chief of Punt, called Pa-rehu, is seen with uplifted hands, and wearing a dagger in his belt; he is followed by his wife, a lady with a remarkable figure, who wears a single yellow garment and a necklace, and by his two sons and a daughter. The following drawing illustrates this scene. The native products given by the Prince of Punt to the Egyptians consisted of aromatic woods, spices, incense, ānti, rare trees and plants, which were afterwards planted in the gardens of Amen at Thebes, gold, etc. : these things were given to the Egyptians in such large quantities that their boats were filled with them, and they formed a very substantial offering to the god Åmen. Among the gifts of the Prince of Punt were leopards, panthers, and other wild animals. Mātshepset seems to have been a capable ruler and administrator, but the conquests of foreign lands during her reign were few.

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Pa-rehu, the Prince of Punt, his wife and his two sons, and a daughter. (This portion of the relief was stolen from the temple, and has not

been recovered.) Her husband, Thothmes II., waged war against the nomad, raiding tribes of the Eastern Desert, and he conducted a campaign of considerable importance in Nubia; he seems to have died while he was comparatively young.

After his death Hātshepset associated Thothmes III. with her in the rule of the kingdom, but, as after her death he obliterated her name from her temple, it seems that the relations between the rulers were not always happy. M. Naville thinks that Thothmes III. hated Hātshepset because her husband, Thothmes II., had not raised his (Thothmes III.'s) mother Åset to royal rank, and that he was jealous of his mother's honour; Hatshepset had no son, and she seems to have been obliged to associate Aset's son with her in the rule of the kingdom. Thothmes III. seems to have married first Neferu-Rā, a daughter of ķātshepset, and secondly, another daughter of the great queen called Hātshepset-meri-Rā.

It would be unjust to the memory of a great man and a loyal servant of Ħātshepset if we omitted to mention the name of Senmut, the architect and overseer of works of Dêr al-Baharî. His tomb is still to be seen on a hill about a mile from the temple. There is little doubt that he was influenced in making the plan of the temple which he built for the Great Queen by that of the temple of Menthuhetep,


An Egyptian ship being loaded by the people of Punt.

(After Mariette.)

but it says much for the good sense of the ablest woman who ever sat on the throne of Egypt, that she gave this distinguished architect the opportunity of building the unique and beautiful temple, which has shed glory on the name, both of the subject and of his great sovereign. The visitor to the temple of Dêr al-Baħarî owes the ease with which he is able to visit every part of it to the labours of M. Naville, assisted by Mr. Hogarth, who spent three winters in clearing it at the expense of the Egypt Exploration Fund. An idea of the vastness of the work may be gleaned fronı ihe fact that in two winters the enormous amount of 60,000 cubic metres

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