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of rubbish and stones were removed from the site and carried away to a distance of 200 yards. This temple now presents a striking appearance, whether seen from the Luxor or Ķûrna side, and every visitor will much appreciate the excellent results which have attended the completion of the undertaking. *
Archäologists will be interested to know that the newly found fragments of the wall upon which the expedition to Punt is depicted all agree in pointing to the eastern side of Africa as the country which the Egyptians called Punt; some of the animals in the reliefs are identical with those found to this day on the Abyssinian coast, and the general products of the two countries are the same. Punt was famous for its ebony, and all tradition agrees in making Abyssinia, and the countries south and east of it, the home of the ebony tree. The tombs at Dêr al-Baħarî were opened many, many years ago, and a very large number of the coffins with which Mariette furnished the first Egyptian Museum at Bûlâk came from them; since that time the whole site has been carefully searched by diggers for antiquities, hence comparatively few antiquities have been unearthed by M. Naville. In the course of the work he discovered an interesting mummy-pit, and in a small chamber hewn in the solid rock, about twelve feet below the pavement, he found three wooden rectangular coffins (each containing two inner coffins), with arched lids, wooden hawks and jackals, wreaths of flowers, and a box containing a large number of ushabtiu figures. These coffins contained the mummies of a priest called Menthu-Teḥuti-auf-ānkh, and of his mother and of his aunt; they belong to the period of the XXVIth dynasty, or perhaps a little earlier.
During the last days of the excavations at Dêr al-Bahari M. Naville's workmen came upon a very interesting “foundation deposit,” which they discovered in a small rock-hewn pit. It consisted of fifty wooden hoes, four bronze slabs, a hatchet, a knife, eight wooden models of adzes, eight wooden adzes with bronze blades, fifty wooden models of an implement of unknown use, ten pots of alabaster, and ten baskets; above these were a few common earthenware pots, and over all were some mats. All the objects bear the same inscription, i.e., the prenomen and titles of Queen Hātshepset.
* M. Naville's description of the temple has been published under the title, “ The Temple of Deir el Bahari,” 4 parts, London, 1894-1898.
VI. The Tomb of Hātshepset. – The great interest which attaches to the name of this queen, and the romantic circumstances under which she lived and reigned, have induced many to endeavour to discover both her mummy and her tomb, and during his excavations M. Naville kept this object steadily before him. Good fortune, tenacity of purpose, and a lavish but enlightened expenditure of money, gave the clue to the well-known American archæologist, Mr. Theodore M. Davis, and this gentleman, having overcome difficulties of a more than ordinary character, early in the year 1904 declared that he had found the tomb of the Great Queen. He was assisted in his work by Mr. Howard Carter, formerly an Inspector of Egyptian Antiquities in the service of the Egyptian Government, who superintended the excavation operations. An account of the works and the discovery of the tomb appeared in the Times of March 14th, 1904, and from that the following statements are taken :
“Like the other royal sepulchres in the Valley of the “ Tombs of the Kings at Thebes, the tomb of the Great “Queen’ consists for the most part of a corridor sloping "downward at a somewhat sharp angle into the heart of a “limestone mountain. The entrance of the tomb, “commonly called “Number Twenty,' was already known
“to the members of the French Commission, and it was “excavated by Lepsius for a distance of 56 mètres. Beyond “this point he had not the patience, or perhaps the means, “to go; and an idea grew up that the corridor did not lead “to a tomb at all, but was an underground passage from “the Valley of the Royal Tombs to the Temple of Dêr el“ Bâhari.
“A clearance of the rubbish near the mouth of it, made “by Mr. Davis last spring, settled the question. Here a “number of small articles were found which showed not “ only that it was the entrance to the tomb, but that the “tomb was that of Hatshepsu. The work of clearing out “the tomb itself was at once taken in hand, and has but “just been brought to a conclusion. The mouth of the “corridor happened to be in the path of a watercourse, the "result being that whenever a thunderstorm took place the "water poured down a sloping passage, filling it with “ boulders of stone and breccia almost harder than the “rock itself. All this it has been necessary to move foot by “ foot for a distance of no less than 194 mètres. The “latter part of the work of excavating has been particularly “ difficult owing to the foul air and excessive heat of the "interior.
“ The direction taken by the long corridor of the tomb “is most remarkable. The entrance is in the axis of the “temple of Dêr el-Baħarî, which stands on the other side “ of the cliff, and it was natural to suppose that the corridor " was intended to lead to the temple. Instead of doing so, “it suddenly curves southward, and, after continuing for “more than 60 mètres in a southerly direction, once more “turns to the west. At a distance of 56 mètres a chamber “is reached the extreme point attained by Lepsius; then, “after another 60 mètres, there is a second chamber, and “after 36 mètres more a third. From this third chamber a “ passage curves inward and leads to the burial chamber,
" in which two sarcophagi have just been found. The "sarcophagi are of hard sandstone, which has been “polished like a copper disk, and are covered with beauti“fully formed hieroglyphics. From these we learn that “one of the sarcophagi contained the mummy of “ Hatshepsu, and the other that of her father Thothmes I. “ The lids of the sarcophagi lie on the floor, and by the ** side of that of Hatshepsu is a canopic jar of polished “sandstone.
“ The sarcophagi are empty; the mummy of Thothmes I., " in fact, was one of those which were found in the pit at " Dêr el-Baħarî, and is now in the Cairo Museum. The "mummy of Hatshepsu may still be lying in one of the un"explored side chambers of the tomb, where it would have “ been deposited for the sake of safety in some period of “ danger. But the work of completely clearing out the "burial chamber and such chambers as exist will be a long “one. The rock through which the Tomb has been cut is “bad—the cause, probably, both of the length and of the “curious curvature of the corridor—and the chambers are "blocked with fragments of it which have fallen from the “ceiling. This is more especially the case with the third "chamber, the roof of which was originally supported by "columns, whose heads now appear above the masses of "fallen rock. It would seem that the sides of the chamber "were coated with limestone, since square blocks of fine " limestone have been found among the débris, painted with " representations of scenes from the Book of the Dead. “ The chanıber is 40 feet to 50 feet in length, and there are "several side chambers opening from it. These are still “filled with fallen rock and rubbish, but enough is visible "to show that they also were panelled with painted lime“ stone.
“ Until the debris is removed, it will be impossible to “tell whether any objects of bistorie al importance await
“the explorer. In the third chamber, however, fragments “ of large and beautiful vases have been picked up; and “the fact that the sarcophagus of Thothmes I. has been “found by the side of that of Hatshepsu throws a new light “on the history of the tomb, and explains why it has no “connection with the temple of Dêr el-Baħars. It was “made, as we now learn, not by the queen, but by her “father. Indeed, a fragmentary inscription on a vase from “the third chamber has even suggested the possibility that “it was of still older origin, constructed in the earliest “ years of the XVIIIth dynasty, and intended to be the “common burial place of the Royal family. Whether this “suggestion is right or wrong cannot be definitely settled “ until the summer, when the work of removing all the “rubbish from the chambers may be expected to have "come to an end." Since the above was written the tomb has been completely cleared out, but the mummy of the Great Queen has not been found.
VII. The Temple of Menthu-Hetep Neb-hapRā.—In the winter of 1903-4, Professor Naville and Mr. H. R. Hall, M.A., of the British Museum, continued their excavations at Dêr al-Baharî on behalf of the Egypt Exploration Fund, and in the course of their work they were so fortunate as to discover the remains of the Temple of Menthu-Hetep. This discovery is the most important which has been made for some years, for the temple of Menthu-Hetep is the oldest at Thebes, and its ruins throw a flood of light upon temple construction and ornamentation at a period of which extremely little is known. It is too soon to attempt to sum up the additions which the discovery will make to our knowledge, for the excavation of the temple will not be completed until probably 1907. The excavators, however, drew up a statement on the subject, which appeared in the Times of April 23rd, 1904, and from that the following remarks are taken :