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married his stepmother Cleopatra-Berenice in 80, and was killed in the same year.

Ptolemy XIII. Philopator Philadelphus (Neos Dionysos) was about 95; he began to reign in 8o, but was not crowned until 76; his sovereignty was acknowledged in Rome in 59; the year following he was driven out of Egypt, and he died in 51. His nickname was “Auletes."

Ptolemy XIV. was born in 61; he ruled jointly with his sister Cleopatra the Great in 51, and for a short time with Arsinoë (?) in 48; he was drowned in the Nile in 47.

Ptolemy XV. was born in 59; he ruled jointly with Cleopatra in 47, and was murdered in 44.

Cleopatra VII. Tryphæna, the Great, the illegitimate daughter of Ptolemy XIII., was born in 69, and she became sole ruler of Egypt in 44. She named her son Ptolemy XVI. (Cæsarion) co-regent in 36, and died of poison or by the bite of an asp in 23.

Ptolemy XVI., Cæsarion, was born in 47, and died in the year 23, during his flight to Ethiopia. The lengths of the reigns of the Ptolemies were as follows:Ptolemy Soter I.

20 years.
Ptolemy Philadelphus...

38 »
Ptolemy Euergetes I....
Ptolemy Philopator...
Ptolemy Epiphanes ...
Ptolemy Philometor
Ptolemy Euergetes II.
Ptolemy Soter II. ...
Ptolemy Neos Dionysos

Cleopatra ... ...
The dynasty ruled in all 275 years.
Egypt became a province of Rome B.C. 30.

62

II.

5,318

3,338

3,966

DATES ASSIGNED TO THE EGYPTIAN DYNASTIES BY

EGYPTOLOGISTS. Dynasty Champollion- Lepsius Brugsch Mariette.

Figeac. (in 1858). (in 1877). B.C. 5,867 3,892 4,400 5,004 5,615 3,639

4,133

4,751 III.

4,449 IV. 5,121 3,124 3,733

4,235 V. 4,673 2,840

3,566

3,951 VI.

4,425 2,744 3,300 3,703 VII. 4,222

2,592
3,100

3,500 VIII. 4,147 2,522

3,500 IX. 4,047 2,674

--- 3,358 X. 3,947 2,565

3,249 XI. 3,762 2,423

3,064 XII. 3,703 2,380

2,466

2,851 XIII. 3,417

2,136 2,235 XIV, 3,004 2,167

2,398 XV. 2,520 2,101

2,214 XVI. 2,270 1,842 XVII. 2,082 1,684 XVIII. 1,822 1,591 1,700

1,703 XIX. 1,473

1,443

1,400 1,462 XX. 1,279 1,269 1,200

1,288 XXI. 1,101

1,091 1,100 1,110 XXII.

961

980 ΧΧΙΙΙ. 851

766 810 XXIV. XXV. 718 716 700 715 XXVI. 674 685 666 665 XXVII. 524

525 527 527 XXVIII. 404

406 XXIX.

399 XXX. 377 XXXI. 339

340

971

966

762

787 729

733

721

525

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398

399

399

378

378

378 340

340

ROMANS.

30. Cæsar Augustus becomes master of the Roman

Empire. Cornelius Gallus is the first prefect 28. of Egypt and Gaius Petronius the second. 25. Under the third prefect, Aelius Gallus, Can

dace, queen of the Ethiopians, invades Egypt,

but is defeated. 14. Tiberius. In the consulship of Marcus Silanus

and Lucius Norbanus, Germanicus set out for Egypt to study its antiquities. His ostensible motive, however, was solicitude for the province. He sailed up the Nile from the city of Canopus, which was founded by the Spartans because Canopus, pilot of one of their ships, had been buried there, when Menelaus on his return to Greece was driven into a distant sea and to the shores of Libya. “Next he visited the vast ruins of ancient Thebes. There yet remained on the towering piles Egyptian inscriptions, with a complete account of the city's past grandeur. One of the aged priests, who was desired to interpret the language of his country, related how once there had dwelt in Thebes 700,000 men of military age, and how with such an army Rhamses conquered Libya, Ethiopia, Media, Persia, Bactria, and Scythia, and held under his sway the countries inhabited by the Syrians, Armenians, and their neighbours, the Cappadocians, from the Bithynian to the Lycian Sea. There was also to be read what tributes were imposed on these nations, the weight of silver and gold, the tale of arms and horses, the gifts of ivory and of perfumes to the temples, and the amount of grain and supplies furnished by

4.

A.D. each people, a revenue as magnificent as is now

exacted by the might of Parthia or the power of Rome. But Germanicus also bestowed attention on other wonders. Chief of these were the stone image of Memnon, which, when struck by the sun's rays, gives out the sound of a human voice; the pyramids, rising up like mountains amid almost impassable wastes of shifting sand; raised by the emulation and vast wealth of kings; the lake (i.e., Moeris) hollowed out of the earth to be a receptacle for the Nile's overflow; and elsewhere the river's narrow channel and profound depth which no line of the explorer can penetrate. He then came to Elephantine and Syene, formerly the limits of the Roman empire, which now extends to the Red Sea.”—Tacitus, book ii., SS 59-61 (Church and Brodribb).

The last prefect of Egypt appointed by Tiberius

was Avillius Flaccus. 37. Caligula. A riot broke out in Alexandria, and

Flaccus was recalled. The mob made an effigy of Caligula, and took it about the sireets with a paper cap on its head. In his reign a persecution of

the Jews took place. 41. Claudius. Egypt was prosperous, and the Romans

greatly developed the trade routes and irrigation

of the country. 54. Nero. In his reign Christianity was first preached

in Egypt by Saint Mark. The Blemmyes made raids upon the southern frontier of Egypt. The

Romans made an expedition to Meroë. 68. Galba. He was murdered. 69. Otho. Reigned three months. 69. Vitellius. He was murdered.

A.D. 69. Vespasian. He is said to have restored sight to a

blind man. He was a tolerant man, and was present at the installation of an Apis Bull at

Memphis. Jerusalem destroyed A.D. 70. 79. Titus. 32. Domitian causes temples to Isis and Serapis to be

built at Rome. During his reign there was a religious fight between the people of Tentyra and Ombos; an Ombite was caught, killed and eaten

by the people of Tentyra. 96. Nerva. 98. Trajan. The Nile and Red Sea Canal (Amnis

Trajânus) re-opened. The Greeks were besieged by the Jews in Alexandria, and were relieved by Marcius Turbo; the Jewish colony was almost

annihilated. Turbo built the fortress of Babylon. 117. Hadrian. He founded the city of Antinoopolis in

memory of his favourite Antinous, and made a road from it to Berenice on the Red Sea. He

visited Egypt twice. 138. Antoninus Pius. 161. Marcus Aurelius caused the famous Itinerary to

be made. A revolt of the Bucolic troops took

place. 180. Commodus. 193. Pertinax.

Didius Julianus.

Pescennius Niger. 193. Septimius Severus. He visited Egypt. 211. Caracalla visited Egypt, and caused a large number

of young men to be massacred at Alexandria. Geta.

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