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tombs of Qen-Åmen and Sen-nefera. The excavations and restorations which Mr. Mond has carried out are of a most useful character, and he deserves the thanks of all lovers of the civilization of Egypt for the pains and money which he has spent on his work.

In the cemetery at Kurnet Murrai are large numbers of tombs, also of the XVIIIth dynasty, but few of them are sufficiently important to need careful examination. The most interesting, that of Hui, a viceroy of Nubia under the XVIIIth dynasty, has been provided with a door by the Administration of Antiquities, and many will be glad that the uncommon scenes depicted on the walls will be preserved. Those who have the time and are prepared to face a large number of bats, should visit the tomb of PetāAmen-em-åpt, a nobleman and priest who flourished under the XXVIth dynasty. During his own lifetime this priest prepared for himself a tomb containing 22 rooms, and a large number of corridors, all hewn out of the living rock, and he decorated the walls of these with texts and scenes referring to the making of funeral offerings, according to the use employed in the Pyramid Period; the ritual of Funeral Sacrifice, with scenes; the “Book of the Gates of the Underworld ”; and a number of hymns and religious scenes copied from documents of a much older period. A great many of these have, unfortunately, been destroyed, but large numbers of passages may be restored by the help of the texts on the walls of the corridors and chambers in the pyramids at Şakkâra. In the Valley of the Tombs of the Queens the most important sepulchre is that of Queen Thi; the colouring of the scenes is very good, and the paintings are comparatively well preserved.

In 1903-1904 Messrs. Schiaparelli and Bellerini opened the tomb of Queen Åst (No. 51), and the tomb of a person without name (No. 46), and they discovered the tombs of Queen Nefert-åri-meri-Mut (No. 66), of Amen-her-khepesh-f

(No. 55), of P-Rā-her-unami-f (No. 42), and of Åāḥmeset, the daughter of Seqenen-Rā.

Mr. Seton Karr has shown that the tombs at Thebes, and elsewhere in Egypt, were dug out by means of tools made of chert, and that metal tools were used for the final shaping and smoothing of the chambers. He has found numbers of chert chisels and other tools near the tombs and among the stone fragments which were cast out from them in ancient days, and there is reason to believe that tools of this material were in use for hewing stone so far back as the Neolithic Period. The light used by the workmen in the course of their work was, no doubt, that of ordinary lamps, which were probably suspended from stands. In 1905 a lamp, with stand complete, was found in a tomb a few miles to the south of Thebes.

X. The Tombs of the Kings, called in Arabic Bibân al-Mulûk, are hewn out of the living rock in a valley, which is reached by passing the temple at Ķūrna ; it is situated about three or four miles from the river. This valley contains the tombs of kings of the XVIIIth, XIXth, and XXth dynasties, and is generally known as the Eastern Valley; a smaller valley, the Western, contains the tombs of some of the kings of the XVIIIth dynasty. These tombs consist of inclined planes with a number of chambers or halls receding into the mountain, sometimes to a distance of 300 feet. Strabo gives the number of these royal tombs as 40, 17 of which were open in the time of Ptolemy Lagus. In 1835, ai were known, but the labours of Mariette, Professor Maspero, M. Victor Loret, and Mr. Theodore M. Davis have brought 20 others to light.

The Tombs of the Kings form a very important and interesting class of monuments, the like of which exists nowhere else in Egypt. They were all made between B.C. 1700 and B.C. 1050, that is to say, they were hewn and built during the most flourishing period of Egyptian history, and at a time when tribute flowed into the country from Syria, Palestine, Libya, Nubia, and a part of the Northern Sûdân. When we consider the group as a whole it is easy to see that all are built practically on one and the same plan ; the modifications which occur in the details of each are due partly to structural difficulties and partly to the difference in the lengths of time which were devoted to the making of them. If the king began to build his tomb early in life, and had a long and successful reign, his tomb would be large and contain many chambers, and be elaborately decorated with scenes and texts from the religious works which were most esteemed at the time; if his reign were short and supplies were not forthcoming to provide the food of the workmen and others employed on the work, the corridors had to be shortened, and the number of rooms diminished. It may well be assumed that these tombs were built by forced labour.

One of the commonest religious views of the Egyptians was that the Tuat, or Underworld, was a long, narrow valley which ran parallel with Egypt, and was neither above nor below the level of this earth. It had a river flowing through the whole length of it. This valley began on the west bank of the Nile, ran due north, bent round towards the east when the Delta was approached, and terminated at the place where the sun rose. It was divided into 10 sections, and at each end was a sort of vestibule or chamber. The ante-chamber at its beginning was called Amentet, and was a place of gloom ; as the passenger through this valley went onwards each of the first five sections grew darker and darker, until at the end of the fifth section the darkness was absolute. As the passenger moved on through the last five sections the darkness grew less and less dense, until at the end of the tenth section he entered the chamber, the gloom of which resembled that of the chamber at the beginning of the valley. The whole night, which was

supposed to consist of 12 hours, was occupied in passing through the Țuat, and the two chambers and the ro main divisions of it were traversed each in one hour. The Țuat was a difficult place to pass through, for portions of it were filled with hideous monsters and horrible reptiles, and a lake of boiling and stinking water. Religious tradition declared that the Sun-god Rā had made his way in it seated in his boat, but that he was only enabled to do so by employing his words of magical power, and by the exercise of the functions of deity. The priests declared that they possessed the knowledge of such words of power, and people believed that if they learned them, and learned to recognize the various divisions of the Țuat and the beings in them by means of the pictures which the priests provided, they could make the journey through the Țuat in safety, and would rise in the next world with the sun.

The priests of Amen, who promulgated this view, which was based upon an older system of indigenous belief, presided over the building of the royal tombs in the XVIIIth dynasty, and made each tomb to resemble the long, narrow valley of the Ţuat by providing it with long corridors. When the body was deposited in the tomb the priests repeated the words of power which Rā was believed to have uttered, and performed ceremonies in imitation of those of the acts of the god ; in fact, made very full use of sympathetic magic, and the worshippers of Åmen believed that their kings would surely and certainly pass safely through the dark valley, and would overcome all their foes, and would rise together with the sun to a new life in the next world. Now, the Sun-god traversed this valley each night in his boat, and, of course, rose each day; the aim, then, of every one of his worshippers was to secure a passage in his boat, for if only this could be obtained resurrection was certain. The doctrine of the sun-worshippers and the priests of Åmen taught that the souls of all who died during the day made their way to Åmentet, where, provided they were equipped with the knowledge of the necessary “divine words,” they entered the boat of the Sun-god. When they arrived at the kingdom of Osiris at midnight they were judged, and the blessed were rewarded, and the wicked were annihilated ; this done the boat of the Sun-god passed on towards the East, where, having destroyed all the nature powers of night and darkness, i.e., cloud, mist, rain, etc., he rose on this world in glorious strength, and the souls who had chosen to stay with him rejoiced in renewed light and were happy.

All the inscriptions on these tombs were written to effect this object, and they may be thus grouped :-(1) The Book of the Praisings, or Litanies, of Rā, which contain's 75 short paragraphs; each paragraph supplies one of Rā's names, and a certain attribute. (2) The Book of the Gates, i.e., the 12 Gates or Pylons of the 12 divisions of the Ţuat. This book gave the names of the Gates and of their guardians, and described the various beings that were to be found in each section, and the texts repeated the addresses which they made to Rā, and the answers which Rā made to them. One portion of this book is exceedingly old, and the sympathetic magic described in it must date from pre-dynastic times. (3) The Book of that which is in the Underworld, which treats of the 12 divisions of the Underworld, and contains texts, the knowledge of which was of vital importance to the deceased. It describes at some length the kingdom of the god Seker, and the monster serpents which guard it, and reveals the belief in the existence of a place of doom where the darkness was impenetrable and the depth unfathomable. This work appears to represent the dogmas of the most ancient inhabitants of Egypt with the modifications which were approved of by the priests of Amen, and it seems that they tried to eliminate the belief in Osiris, so far as was possible,

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