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from their writings, and to make their god Amen-Rā all sufficient. They did not, however, succeed in doing so, and the best proof of this fact is supplied by the sarcophagus of Seti I., now in the Soane Museum in London. Seti I. allowed the “Book of that which is in the Underworld” to be inscribed in full on the walls of the chambers of his tomb, but he had the full text of the “ Book of the Gates," with all the vignettes, chiselled on his sarcophagus, including the magical part of it, and to make quite certain of his future welfare he caused some important chapters to be added from the old Book of the Dead. Similarly Thothmes III. allowed the walls of his tomb to be covered with the “ Book of that which is in the Underworld,” but on one of the swathings of his mummy we find a copy of the CLIVth Chapter of the Book of the Dead.
The group of sepulchres called the Tombs of the Kings may be now briefly enumerated ; the order is chronological
I (No. 38). Tomb of Thothmes I.-This tomb, the oldest of the Bibân al-Mulûk, is a small one ; it was discovered by M. Victor Loret in 1899. It contains the royal sarcophagus.
II (No. 20). Tomb of Hātshepset.—This tomb was excavated by Mr. Theodore N. Davis in 1903 and 1904. It has already been described.
III (No. 34). Tomb of Thothmes III.—This tomb was discovered by M. Victor Loret in 1899, and lies about 325 feet from the tomb of Rameses III. The walls of the various chambers are ornamented with figures of the gods and inscriptions, among others being a long list of gods, and a complete copy of the “Book of that which is in the Underworld.” The sarcophagus was, of course, found to be empty, for the king's mummy was taken from Dêr alBaharî, where it had been hidden by the Egyptians during a time of panic, to the Gîzah Museum about 18 years ago. On a column in the second chamber we see depicted Thothmes followed by his mother Åset, his wife Mert-Rā, his wives Åāh-sat and Nebt-kheru, and his daughter Nefertáru. It is to be hoped that steps will at once be taken to publish the texts and inscriptions in this tomb. The mummy of Thothmes III. was found at Dêr al-Bahari by Professor Maspero.
IV. (No. 35). Tomb of Amen-ḥetep II.—This tomb was found by M. Victor Loret in 1899, and in it is the mummy of the king lying in its sandstone sarcophagus. Thanks to the exertions of Sir William Garstin, the royal mummy and the mummies of the private persons that were found in the tomb and were at first removed, have been replaced, and the visitor is now able to look upon an impressive scene of death. The tomb is lit by electric light. The tomb of Amenophis, the son and successor of Thothmes III., in many respects resembles that of his father ; the walls are covered with figures of the gods, with the text of the “Book of that which is in the Underworld," and scenes similar to those in the older tomb. Among the numerous objects found in the tomb may be mentioned :Three mummies, each with a large hole in the skull
, and a gash in the breast; fragments of a pink leather cuirass worn by the king ; a series of statues of Sekhet, Anubis, Osiris, Horus, Ptaḥ, etc.; a set of alabaster Canopic vases, a collection of amulets of all kinds ; a large series of alabaster vessels ; and a number of mummies of kings and royal personages, among whom are Thothmes IV., Amenophis III., Menephthah, Rameses IV., Rameses V., and Rameses VI. Thus in the tomb of Amenophis II. we have another hiding-place of royal mummies similar to that of Dêr al-Baharî.
V. (No. 43). Tomb of Thothmes IV.-This tomb was
excavated in 1902 and 1903 by Mr. Theodore N. Davis, who has most generously published a detailed description both of it and its contents (The Tomb of Thothmes IV., London, 1904). The tomb lies on the eastern side of the valley, and the descent to it is made by a flight of steps; it consists of a well, a hall, a flight of steps, a sloping corridor, a second flight of steps, a vestibule, a short passage, and the chamber which contains the sarcophagus. The sarcophagus was found to be empty. In the paintings on the walls of the well and vestibule the king is depicted standing before Osiris, Anubis, Hathor, and Khenti-Åmenti. A hieratic inscription states that the tomb was repaired or restored in the reign of Heru-em-ḥeb, the last king of the XVIIIth dynasty. The inscribed sarcophagus is rounded at the top and measures 10 feet by 6 feet 6 inches by 5 feet
inches. The mummy is that of a man, "young, clean-shaven, and effeminate,” 5 feet 6 inches high ; the head has a cephalic index of 77.7, which places it in the mesaticephalic group. Circumcision had been performed. According to Mr. G. Elliot Smith, Thothmes IV. was about 25 years of age when he died.
In the sarcophagus chamber the body of a chariot was found. This magnificent object is now in the Museum at Cairo, and is one of the most interesting objects of the period which has ever been found. No one who is interested in Egyptian antiquities should fail to see it. On the right side of the chariot (exterior) the king, accompanied by the god of war, Menthu, is seen in his chariot charging the foe and shooting arrows among the hostile charioteers; on the left side (exterior) the king is seen in his chariot riding down his foes and slaying numbers of them. On the inside of the chariot Thothmes is depicted in the form of a humanheaded lion, the paws of which rest upon the prostrate forms of enemies. The nations conquered come from Nehiren, Sanker, Tunep, Shasu, Ķețesh, Thikhisa, and other regions. (For further particulars about the chariot, see Professor Maspero's account in Mr. Davis's Tomb of Thothmes IV.).
In a corner of a small chamber by the side of the sarcophagus chamber, “resting in an erect position against the “wall, was a denuded mummy of a boy, whose stomach and
cage had been ripped open by the ancient plunderers “with a very sharp knife” (Mr. Howard Carter, in Tomb of Thothmes IV., p. 10).
VI. (No. 22). Tomb of Amen-ḥetep III.—This tomb is in the Western Valley, and it seems not to have been finished. Its total length is about 370 feet, and, like many of the best tombs, it contains a deep, rectangular shaft, commonly called a well, which was intended either to bar the
way of the thief, or to mislead him. The scenes on the walls represent the king standing before gods of the Underworld, and are unimportant, but the astronomical scenes painted on the ceilings are of considerable interest. The sarcophagus is broken, and the mummy was hidden in a chamber in the tomb of Åmen-ḥetep II., where it was found by M. Loret in 1899.
VII. (No. 23). Tomb of Ai.—This tomb is in the Western Valley, and is called Tomb of the Apes, because of the picture of 12 apes, which probably forms part of the vignette of the First Hour of the Nighi.
VIII. (No. 16). Tomb of Rameses I. –This tomb was discovered by Belzoni and excavated by M. Loret; the royal sarcophagus, made of granite, is in its chamber. The mummy was found at Dêr al-Baħarî by Professor Maspero, and is now in the museum at Cairo.
IX. (No. 17). Tomb of Seti I., called also “ Belzoni's Tomb,” because it was discovered by bim in 1817. This is the most important and interesting of all the royal tombs,