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and should be carefully examined, because it may be regarded as the best known type of the tombs which were planned by the priests of Åmen. The walls are ornamented with texts and mythological and religious scenes which refer to the passage of the Sun, and of the king also, through the Underworld. On the walls of the sloping corridor is a copy of the “Book of the Praisings of Rā,” and on those of the chambers are the texts and vignettes of 11 of the 12 sections of the “Book of that which is in the Underworld" ; the twelfth section is, for some extraordinary reason, omitted. A copy of the first half of the short form of this work is also written on some of the walls, and the scribe was stopped so suddenly in his work that he did not finish the section which he had begun. It will be noticed that some of the figures of gods, etc., are only traced in outline, a fact which suggests that the tomb was not finished when the king died, and that afterwards no attempt was made to finish it. It is impossible to describe the scenes on the walls in detail ; it is sufficient to draw attention to the excellence and beauty of the paintings and sculptures, and to point out that the whole series refers to the life of the king in the Underworld. The tomb is entered by means of two flights of steps, at the bottom of which is a passage terminating in a deep well. Beyond this are two halls having four and two pillars respectively, and to the left are the passages and small chambers which lead to the large six-pillared hall and vaulted chamber in which stood the sarcophagus of Seti I. Here also is an inclined plane which descends into the mountain for a considerable distance ; from the level of the ground to the bottom of this incline the depth is about 150 feet; the length of the tomb is nearly 500 feet. The designs on the walls were first sketched in outline in red, and the alterations by the master designer or artist were made in black. The mummy of Seti I., found at Dêr al-Baharî, is preserved in the Museum
at Cairo. The beautiful alabaster sarcophagus of Seti I., inscribed with the texts and scenes of the “ Book of the Gates," was taken to London by Belzoni and sold by him to Sir John Soane for £2,000; this magnificent object is now in the Soane Museum in Lincoln's Inn Fields, London. The wooden statue of the king from his tomb is in the British Museum.
X. (No. 7). Tomb of Rameses II.—This tomb has become choked with sand and limestone fragments, in such a way that it appears to have been filled up on purpose ; it was probably faulty in construction. The mummy of the king was found at Dêr al-Baħarî in a coffin, which may possibly be the work of the XXIInd dynasty, and is now in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo.
XI. (No. 10). Tomb of Amen-meses. A man who usurped the royal power for a short time; the tomb is in a ruined condition.
XII. (No. 8). Tomb of Mer-en-Ptaḥ (Menephthah). -- This tomb is decorated with texts from the “Book of the Praisings of Rā,” and from the “ Book of the Gates"; the sarcophagus is in its chamber. The mummy of the king was found by M. Lorel in the tomb of Åmen-ḥetep II. in 1899, and is now in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo. This tomb was completely excavated in 1903-04 by Mr. Howard Carter, to whose description of it, published in Annales du Service, tom. VI, fasc. 2, p. 116, I owe the plan here given.
XIII. (No. 15). Tomb of Seti II.— This tomb appears not to have been finished. It was completely cleared out by Mr. Howard Carter in 1903-04 at the expense of Mrs. Goff.
XIV. (No. 14). Tomb of Set-nekht, father of Rameses III. ; the tomb was originally made for the queen Ta-usert, whose inscriptions and figures were obliterated by Set-nekht.
XV. (No. 3). This tomb was made for Rameses III. ; it is now choked with sand.
XVI. (No. 11). Tomb of Rameses III.-- This tomb is commonly called “ Bruce's Tomb," because it was discovered by this traveller, and the “ Tomb of the Harper," on account of the scenes in which men are represented playing harps. The walls are inscribed with texts from the “Book of the Praisings of Rā,” and the “Book of that which is in the Underworld,” and the “Book of Gates,” and several vignettes from the last two works are painted upon them. The architect did not leave sufficient space between this and a neighbouring tomb, and hence, after excavating passages and chambers to a distance of more than 100 feet, he was obliged to turn to the right to avoid breaking into it. The flight of steps leading into the tomb is not as steep as that in No. 17, the paintings and sculptures are not so fine, and the general plan of ornamentation differs. The scenes on the walls of the first passage resemble those in the first passage of No. 17, but in the other passages and chambers warlike, domestic, and agricultural scenes and objects are depicted. The body of the red granite sarcophagus of Rameses III. is in Paris, the cover is in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, and the mummy of this king is in the Egyptian Museum at Cairo. The length of the tomb is about 400 feet.
XVII. (No. 2). Tomb of Rameses IV.- This tomb is probably the finest example of the royal tombs of the XXth dynasty, which are built on a comparatively small scale. The text and scenes which ornament the walls of the chambers and corridors are from the three works quoted above, but several of the vignettes that appear in this tomb are not found elsewhere. It is interesting to note that in the first room copies of Chapters CXXIII., CXXIV., and CXXVII. of the Book of the Dead are given. The granite
sarcophagus of the king, of colossal proportions (12 feet by 9 feet by 7 feet), is in its proper chamber. A peculiar interest attaches to this tomb, for it is the only Egyptian tomb of which an ancient plan has been found ; this plan is traced on a papyrus, now unfortunately in a mutilated condition which is preserved at Turin, and was published by Lepsius and Chabas. These scholars succeeded in deciphering the descriptions of the chambers of the tomb given in the document, and the former, having made careful measurements of the dimensions of the various sections of he rooms, decided that the work had been substantially carried out in accordance with the plan.
XVIII. (No. 9). Tomb of Rameses VI.-This tomb was well known to Greek and Roman visitors to Thebes, several of whom, with very questionable taste, left behind them records of their visits in the form of inscriptions on its walls. From some of these “ graffiti” it is clear that their writers regarded this tomb as that of Memnon, who has usually been identified with Ảmen-ḥetep III. ; this mistake was caused by the fact that the prenomen of Amen-ḥetep III. and the first part of that of Rameses VI., “Neb-Maāt Rā," ovo , are identical. Some of the graffiti belong to a period so late as the fourth century of our era. The paintings of an astronomical character in the sarcophagus chamber are the only points of special interest in this tomb.
XIX. (No. 6). Tomb of Rameses IX.—This tomb is remarkable for the variety of sculptures and paintings of a nature entirely different from those found in the other royal tombs ; they appear to refer to the idea of resurrection after death and of immortality, which is here symbolized by the principle of generation.
XX. (No. 1). Tomb of Rameses X.