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and the passage, of irregular level, which led to the tomb, was about 220 feet long; at the end of this passage was a nearly rectangular chamber about twenty-five feet long, which was found to be literally filled with coffins, mummies, funereal furniture, boxes, ushabtiu figures, Canopic jars, * bronze vases, etc., etc. A large number of men were at once employed to exhume these objects, and for eight and forty hours M. Brugsch and Aḥmad Effendi Kamal stood at the mouth of the pit watching the things brought up. The heavy coffins were carried on the shoulders of men to the river, and in less than two weeks everything had been sent over the river to Luxor. A few days after this the whole collection of mummies of kings and royal personages was placed upon an Egyptian Government steamer and taken to the Museum at Bâlâķ.
When the mummies of the ancient kings of Egypt arrived at Cairo, it was found that the Bûlâk Museum was too small to contain them, and before they could be exposed to the inspection of the world, it was necessary for additional rooms to be built. Finally, however, M. Maspero had glass cases made, and, with the help of some cabinets borrowed from his private residence attached to the Museum, he succeeded in exhibiting, in a comparatively suitable way, the mummies in which such world-wide interest had been taken. Soon after the arrival of the mummies at Bâlâk M. Brugsch opened the mummy of Thothmes III., when it was found that the Arabs had attacked it and plundered whatever was valuable upon it.
* The principal intestines of a deceased person were placed in sour jars, which were placed in his tomb under the bier ; the jars were dedicated to the four children of the Horus, who were called Mesthå, Hāpi, Tuamutef and Qebḥsennuf. The name “Canopic" is given to them by those who follow the opinion of some ancient writers that Canopus, the pilot of Menelaus, who is said to have been buried at Canopus in Egypt, was worshipped there under the form of a jar with small feet, a thin neck, a swollen body, and a round back.
In 1883 the mummy of Queen Mes-Hent-Themehu,
, emitted unpleasant odours, and by M. Maspero's orders it was unrolled. In 1885 the mummy of Queen Åāḥmes Nefertari,
, was un rolled by him, and as it putrefied rapidly and stank, it had to be buried. Finally, when M. Maspero found that the mummy of Seqenen-Rā, Toll Any was decaying, he decided to unroll the whole collection, and Rameses II. was the first of the great kings whose features were shown again to the world after a lapse of 3,200 years.
Such are the outlines of the history of one of the greatest discoveries ever made in Egypt. It will ever be regretted by the Egyptologist that this remarkable collection of mummies was not discovered by some person who could have used for the benefit of scholars the precious information which this “find” would have yielded, before so many of its objects were scattered; as it is, however, it would be difficult to over-estimate its historical value.
The following is a list of the names of the principal kings and royal personages which were found on coffins at Dêr al-Baħarî and of their mummies :
XVIIth Dynasty, before B.C. 1700. King Seqenen-Rā, coffin and mummy.
Nurse of Queen Nefertari Rää, coffin only. This coffin contained the mummy of a queen whose name is read An-Hāpi.
XVIIIth Dynasty, B.c. 1700-1400.
The Princess Sat-Amen, coffin and mummy.
XIXth Dynasty, B.C. 1400-1200.
XXth Dynasty, B.C. 1200-1100. King Rameses III., mummy found in the coffin of Nefertári.
XXIst Dynasty, B.C. 1100-1000. Royal mother Netchemet. High-priest of Amen, Masaherthå, coffin and mummy. High-priest of Amen, Pi-netchem III., coffin and mummy. Priest of Åmen, Tchet-Ptah-auf-ānkh, coffin and mummy. Scribe Nebseni, coffin and mummy. Queen Maāt-ka-Rā, coffin and mummy. Princess Aset-em-khebit, coffin and mummy. Princess Nesi-Khonsu.
LUXOR TO ASWÂN.
Armant, or Erment, 4581 miles from Cairo, on the west bank of the river, was called in Egyptian Menth, and B Ånnu qemāt, “ Heliopolis of the South"; it marks the site of the ancient Hermonthis, where, according to Strabo, “Apollo and Jupiter are both worshipped.”
The ruins which remain there belong to the Iseion built during the reign of the last Cleopatra (B.C. 51-29). The stone-lined tank which lies near this building was probably used as a Nilometer.
Gebelên, i.e., the "double mountain,” 468 miles from Cairo, on the west bank of the river, marks the site of the city called by the Grecks, Crocodilopolis, and by the Egyptians, Neter-ḥet Sebek, . A city must have stood here in very early times, for numerous objects belonging to the Early Empire have been, and are being, continually found at no great distance from the modern village. Below the ruins of the Egyptian town, quite close to the foot of the “double mountain,” large numbers of flints belonging to the pre-dynastic period have been found, together with pottery both whole and broken.
Aşfûn-al-Matâ'na, 475 miles from Cairo, on the west bank of the river, marks the site of the city of Asphynis, the Het-sfent la trans of the Egyptians. In this neighbourhood was Pathyris, or Per-Het-þert 7 A , the capital of the Phatyrites nome, Per-Het-ḥer