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The Hyksos kings appear not to have troubled greatly about Nubia. When the XVIIIth dynasty had obtained full power in Egypt, some of its greatest kings, such as Thothmes III. and Amenhetep III., marched into Nubia and built temples there; under the rulers of the XIXth dynasty, the country became to all intents and purposes a part of Egypt. Subsequently (about B.C. 720) the Nubians appear to have acquired considerable power, and as Egypt became involved in conflicts with more Northern countries, this power increased until Nubia was able to declare itself independent. For several hundreds of years the Nubians had had the benefit of Egyptian civilization, and all that it could teach them, and they were soon able to organize war expeditions into Egypt with success.
After leaving Philæ, the first place of interest passed is Dâbûd wid, on the west bank of the river, 599} miles from Cairo. At this place, called Ta-het in the inscriptions, are the ruins of a temple founded by Åtchakhar-Amen,* a king of Ethiopia, who reigned about the middle of the third century B.C. The names of Ptolemy VII. Philometor and Ptolemy IX. Euergetes II.are found engraved upon parts of the building. Dâbûd probably stands on the site of the ancient Parembole, a port or castle on the borders of Egypt and Ethiopia, and attached alternately to each kingdom. During the reign of Diocletian it was ceded to the Nubæ by the Romans, and it was frequently attacked by the Blemmyes from the east bank of the river. At Kartassi, on the west bank of the river, 615 miles from Cairo, are the ruins of a temple and large quarries; seven miles further
*(9.1 hotel tano) Åtcha-khar-Àmen, living for ever, beloved of Isis," with the prenomen (On9mmen
south, on the west bank of the river, is Wadi Tâfah, the ancient Taphis, where there are also some ruins; they are, however, of little interest. Contra-Taphis lay on the east bank.
Kalâbsha dalls, on the west bank of the river, 629 miles from Cairo, stands on the site of the classical Talmis, called in hieroglyphics
Thermeset, and mo 86 Ka-hefennu ; it was for a long time the capital of the country of the Blemmyes. It stands immediately on the Tropic of Cancer. The god of this town was called S o Merul or Melul, the Mandulis or Malulis of the Greeks. At Kalâbsha there are the ruins of two temples of considerable interest. The larger of these, which is one of the largest temples in Nubia, appears to have been built upon the site of an ancient Egyptian temple founded by Thothmes III., B.C. 1600, and Amenophis II., B.C. 1566, for on the pronaos this latter monarch is representing offering to the god Amsu and the Ethiopian god Merul or Melul. It seems to have been restored in Ptolemaic times, and to have been considerably added to by several of the Roman emperors—Augustus, Caligula, Trajan, etc. From the appearance of the ruins it would seem that the building was wrecked either immediately before or soon after it was completed ; some of the chambers were plastered over and used for chapels by the early Christians. A large number of Greek and Latin inscriptions have been found engraved on the walls of this temple, and from one of them we learn that the Blemmyes were defeated by Silko, king of the Nubæ and Ethiopians, in the latter half of the sixth century of our era.
At Bêt al-Walî, i.e., the “house of the Saint," a short distance from the larger temple, is the interesting rockhewn temple which was made to commemorate the victories of Rameses II. over the Ethiopians. On the walls of the court leading into the small hall are some beautifully executed sculptures, representing the Ethiopians, after their defeat, bringing before the king large quartities of articles of value, together with gifts of wild and domesticated animals. Many of the objects depicted must have come from a considerable distance, and it is evident that in those early times Talmis was the great central market to which the products and wares of the Súdân were brought for sale and barter. The sculptures are executed with great freedom and spirit, and when the colours upon them were fresh they must have formed one of the most striking sights in Nubia. Some years ago casts of these interesting sculptures were taken by Mr. Bonomi, at the expense of Mr. Hay, and notes on the colours were made ; these two casts, painted according to Mr. Bonomi’s notes, are now set up on the walls in the Fourth Egyptian Room in the British Museum (Northern Gallery), and are the only evidences extant of the former beauty of this little rock-hewn temple, for nearly every trace of colour has vanished from the walls. The scenes on the battle-field are of great interest.
Between Kalâbsha and Dendûr, on the west bank of the river, 642 miles from Cairo, there is nothing of interest to be seen ; at Dendûr are the remains of a temple built by Augustus, (
r-āa, where this emperor is shown making offerings to Åmen, Osiris, Isis, and Sati. At Garf Husên dus ui, on the west bank of the river, 651 miles from Cairo, are the remains of a rock-hewn temple built by Rameses II. in honour of Ptah, Sekhet, Ta-Tenen, Hathor, and Aneq; the work is poor and of little interest. This village marks the site of the ancient Tutzis,
Dakkah Świ, on the west bank of the river, 6624 miles from Cairo, marks the site of the classical Pselcis, the oia P-selket of the hieroglyphics. About B.C. 23 the Ethiopians attacked the Roman garrisons at Philæe and Syene, and having defeated them, overran Upper Egypt. Petronius, the successor of Ælius Gallus, marching with less than 10,000 infantry and 800 horse against the rebel army of 30,000 men, compelled them to retreat to Pselcis, which he afterwards besieged and took. “Part of the insurgents were driven into the city, others fled into the uninhabited country; and such as ventured upon the passage of the river, escaped to a neighbouring island, where there were not many crocodiles on account of the current. Among the fugitives were the generals of Candace,* queen of the Ethiopians in our time, a masculine woman, and who had lost an eye. Petronius, pursuing them in rafts and ships, took them all, and despatched them immediately to Alexandria." (Strabo, XVII., 1, 54.) From Pselcis Petronius advanced to Premnis (Ibrîm), and afterwards to Napata, the royal seat of Candace, which he razed to the ground. As long as the Romans held Ethiopia, Pselcis was a garrison town.
Thetemple at Dakkah was built by Årq-Àmen änkh tchetta mer Åset, “ Årq-Åmen, living for ever, beloved of Isis," having the prenomen a homens det man neo)“ Àmen tet ānkh tàa Rā.” In the sculptures on the ruins which remain Årq-Åmen is shown standing between Menthu-Rā, lord of Thebes, and Atmu the god of Heliopolis, and sacrificing to Thoth, who promises to give him a long and prosperous life as king. Årq-Åmen (Ergamenes) is called the “beautiful god,
* Candace was a title borne by all the queens of Meroë.