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drawn up and signed by representatives of the Arabs and Nubians and, on the whole, the latter observed it very well. In 878 the Nubians rebelled and were punished. In 956 the Muslims took Primis, and in 969 Gawhar invited the king of Nubia to turn a Muḥammadan. In 1005 the Nubians overran Egypt. · In 1173 Shams ad-Dawlah Tûrân Shâh invaded Nubia because the king refused to pay the tribute. He took Ibrîm, destroyed the city, and captured 700,000 prisoners. In 1275 the Muslims annexed the Sûdân. In 1287 the Muslims raided the country far to the south of Dongola. In 1365 the Nubian tribe of Kanz seized Aswân. About 1500 the Fûng tribes finally destroyed the Christian Kingdom of Alwa, and set up a king whose capital was at Sennaar. In 1517 Selim captured Egypt, and sent troops by sea to Maşawa' to occupy the Sûdân. The Fûngs, however, held their own and continued to be masters of the country. From Egypt numbers of Turkish and Bosnian troops entered Nubia vili Aswân, and they took possession of the Nile Valley as far south as the Fourth Cataract. The rule of the Fûngs lasted from 1505 to the end of the XVIIIth century. In other parts of the Sûdân there reigned: 1. The 'Abdallât Shekhs, i.e., 18 kings in about 2 30 years. 2. The Kings of Fazôgli, il., 17 kings in 215 years. 3. The Kings of Shendi, i.e., 16 kings in 215 years. 4. The Sulțâns of Dâr Fûr, i.l., 26 Sulțâns in 420 years (A.D. 1445-1865). The Sûdân was invaded in 1820 by Muḥammad 'Ali, who wished to recruit his army from its tribes, and to collect a revenue from it. He had heard that there was much gold in the country, and he determined to get possession of it. He decided to form an army of Sūdânî men, and the raids which he made to obtain men laid the foundation of one of the most hideous phases of the slave trade. The army he sent was under the command of his son Ismâ‘il, and its success was decisive. Ismâ'il occupied Berber and Shendî, and then advanced to Sennaar. In 1821 Isma'il ascended the Blue Nile, plundering the tribes as he went, and his brother Ibrahîm led a force up the White Nile. Dâr Fûr and Kordôfân were annexed by the Defterdar Muḥammad, the son-in-law of Muhammad Ali, and he perpetrated terrible atrocities. On the east the Egyptian force reached Tomat on the Atbara, and in the south they invaded the Dinka country. When Ismâ'il returned to Shendî he and his nobles were invited to dinner by Nimr the Mekh, or governor, and when all were merry, the palace was set on fire, and the Egyptians were burned to death. Muhammad ‘Alî promptly sent a third expedition into the Sûdân, and punished the people for the death of his son, and a terrible massacre took place at Shendî. In 1822 the modern town of Kharțûm was founded. In 1834 Khurshid Pâshâ conquered the Abyssinians at the Battle of Sennaar, and thus the whole of the Sûdân was * Egyptianized.” Muhammad 'Alî was disappointed with the Sadân, because it did not yield gold enough for his needs, and the chief results of his invasion were the destruction of the ivory trade, caravans ceased to exist as business concerns, and the slave trade flourished as it had never done before.
In 1841 a serious revoltat Kasala was quelled by Muhammad 'Ali's troops, and the Sâdân was divided into the provinces of Fâzôglî, Sennaar, Kharțûm, Taka (Kasala), Berber, Dongola, Kordôfân. Sa'id Pâshâ visited the Sadân in 1856, and carried out a number of valuable reforms ; above all he reduced taxation on irrigation, and abolished the collection of taxes by soldiers. He was in favour of evacuating the Sûdân, and only gave up the idea at the earnest entreaties of the shêkhs. In 1865 another revolt broke out at Kasala, and when it was suppressed bị Mazhar Pâshâ the Sûdânî soldiers who had garrisoned the town were sent to Egypt. In 1870 the copper mines of
Hufrât an-Naḥâs, in the Baḥr al-Ghazal, were seized for the Government by Helale, a native of Dâr Für. Between 1869 and 1873 Sir Samuel Baker led an expedition to the Upper Nile intending to suppress the slave trade, and to bring the countries south of Gondokoro under the rule of Egypt, to introduce navigation on the great Equatorial Lakes, and to foster trade and to open up new trade route. He succeeded in establishing a number of fortified posts, and prepared the way for Egyptian rule: he was the first Englishman to fill a high post in the service of the Khedive. In 1874 Munzinger Bey annexed Senhît, on the Abyssinian frontier. In 1874 Colonel Gordon was appointed Governor of the Equatorial Provinces, and in the following year Zubêr Pasha began the conquest of Dâr Fûr, and Harar, in Abyssinia, was annexed to Egypt. In 1876 war broke out between the Egyptians and Abyssinians; the latter were victorious, and made prisoner Hasan Pâshâ, the Khedive's son. In 1877 Colonel Gordon was made Governor-General of the Sûdân, and he suppressed a revolt in the Dâr Fûr province, and another in the Bahr al-Ghazal. The latter revolt was headed by Sulêmân, the son of Zubêr Pashâ, and he was captured by Gessi Pashâ, who had him shot ; Zubêr laid his death at Gordon's door, and a very large proportion of the troubles which fell upon the Sûdân subsequently were stirred up by him because of his hatred for Gordon personally, and for the power which he represented.
In 1881 Muḥammad Ahmad, better known as the Mahdi, declared himself. At the time the Sûdân, under the rule of Egypt, was a tract of country, about 1,650 miles long and 1,400 miles wide. It extended from Aswân to the Equator, and from Dâr Fûr to the Red Sea. In 1884 General Gordon was sent to arrange for the evacuation of the Sûdân, and to suppress the slave trade; on his way up to Kharțûm he declared his mission, and by so doing practically sealed his own fate. He was besieged in
Kharțàm in April of the same year, and in August Great Britain determined to send a relief expedition. "A forlorn “hope of British soldiers is led the longest and the hardest “way round to the goal, along the line of greatest resistance, “but struggles manfully and heroically against heavy odds, “ until it really is “too late?! Kharțûm succumbs, and “English chivalry loses its noblest representative.” General Gordon was murdered on January 26th, 1885, a little before sunrise. Early in 1896 the reconquest of the Sûdân was decided upon. On June 7th the Battle of Ferket was fought : 1,000 Dervishes were killed or wounded, and 500 were made prisoners. On August 7th, 1897, the Dervish garrison at Abû Hamed was attacked by the Egyptians, and out of its 1,500 defenders 1,300 were killed or wounded. On April 8th, 1898, the Battle of the Atbara was fought, and the Dervish loss was 3,000 killed, and 2,000 were taken prisoners.
On September 2nd the Battle of Omdurmán was fought; the Dervish loss was 11,000 killed, 16,000 wounded, amd 4000 were made prisoners. On September 4th the British and Egyptian flags were hoisted at Khartûm, and a memorial service for General Gordon was held there : on the 19th. the Egyptian flag was hoisted at Fashoda. On November 24th, 1899, General Sir F. R. Wingate pursued the Khalifa to Umm Dabrekât, and after a fierce fight, in which the Dervishes lost 1,000 men killed, the Khalifa seated himself upon a sheepskin, and died with his Emirs, riddled with bullets. The death of the Khalifa was the death blow to Mahdiism. The cost of the Dongola campaign in 1896 was £E.725,641 ; of the Wâdi HalfaKharțûm Railway £E.300,000, and of the military operations which resulted in the reconquest of the Sûdân £E.1,328,713, in all £E.2,354,354. The agreement as to the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium in the Sûdân was signed in Cairo, January 19th, 1899, by H. E. Boutros
Ghali, and Lord Cromer. This agreement declares that the word “Sûdân ” means all the territories south of the 22nd parallel of latitude ; that the British and Egyptian flags shall be used together, both on land and water, throughout the Súdán, except in the town of Sawâkin, wherein the Egyptian flag alone shall be used; that the supreme military and civil command in the Sûdân shall be vested in one officer, termed the “Governor-General of the Sûdân”; that the jurisdiction of the Mixed Tribunals shall not extend, nor be recognized for any purpose whatsoever, in any part of the Súdán, except Sawâkin ; that the importation of slaves into the Sûdân, as also their exportation, is absolutely prohibited, etc.
The “Capitulations” are not in force in the Sûdân, and there are no foreign Consuls.
The Egyptian Sûdân is bounded on the north by the 22nd parallel of North Latitude, on the south by the Lâdô Enclave and east of the Nile by the 5th parallel of North Latitude, on the east by the Red Sea and Abyssinia, and on the west by a line running through the Libyan Desert (defined by the Anglo-French Agreement of March, 1899), by Wadai, and by the watershed between the Congo and Shari on one side and the Nile on the other.* Its greatest length is 1,250 miles, its greatest width is 1,080 miles, and its area is about 1,006,000 square miles. Its capital is Kharțûm, 15° 36' North Latitude, 32° 32' East Longitude. The Sûdân is administered by a Governor-General assisted by Mudîrs, or Governors of Provinces, Inspectors and AssistantInspectors, and by native Maómûrs.
For administrative purposes the Sûdân is divided into fourteen Provinces, Eight First Class, and Six Second. These are:
* See Gleichen, Handbook, vol. 1, f. 1.