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First Class. 1. Dongola (Donkola). Capital Merawi. Its other

chief towns are New Dongola, Khandak, Dabba,

and Kürtî. 2. Berber. Capital Ad-Dâmar. Its other chief

towns are Rubâțâb, Berber Town, Berber District,

and Shendî. 3. Kharțûm. Capital Kharțùm. Its other chief towns

are Omdurmân and Wad Ramla. 4. Sennaar. Capital Sengah. Its other chief towns

are Ruşêres, Dindar, Dâr Fùng, and Abû Nacâmah. 5. Fashóda (Upper Nile, or Kódôk). Capital Kôdók.

Its other chief towns are Renk, Tawfikiya, and

Sobat. 6. Baḥr al-Ghazal. Capital Waw. Its other chief

towns are Mashra' ar-Rík, Dêm Zubêr, Shak Shak, Tông, Awrumbík, or Urumbîk (Rumbek), and

Shambi. 7. Kordôfân. Capital Al-Obed.* Its other chief

towns are Bâra, Dû wêm, Khûrshi, Nahûd, Tayyara,

Tandik, and Dillin. 8. Kasala. Capital Kasala. Its other chief towns

are Kadiref and Kallabật.

Second Class. 1. Halla. Capital Halfa. Its other chief towns are

Kôsha and Dulgo. 2. Gazira. Capital Wad Madani. The chief towns

are Abù Dulêk, Kâmlin, Ruguía, Masallamiya, and

Manâgil. 3. Blue Nile. Capital Wâd Madani.

* More correctly Al-Ubayyad.

4. White Nile. Capital Dûwêm. Its other chief

towns are şațêna, Kawa, Gadid, etc. 5. Mongalla Capital Mongalla. This Province

was formed of the portion of the old Upper Nile Province which lies south of North Latitude 7° 30'.

It was created on January 1st, 1906. 6. Red Sea Province. Capital Sawâkin. Chief

towns, ļôkur and Port Sûdân.

Besides these may be mentioned the semi-independent kingdom of Dâr Für; its present king is ‘Ali Dinâr, who pays an annual tribute to the Sûdân Government. Its capital is Al-Fasher.

The population of the Sûdân before the Dervish rule was estimated at 8,525,000, but at present Sir F. W. Wingate, the Governor-General of the Sûdân, thinks that it cannot be more than 1,853,000. The populations of the provinces and large towns, etc., were in 1903 :

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In forwarding this return Sir Reginald Wingate says :“It will be readily understood that these figures have no “pretence to exact accuracy, but they have been compiled “after careful consideration and inquiry, and they represent, “ in the opinion of Sir Rudolf von Slatin, Father Ohrwalder, " and others who have been intimately connected with the “Sûdân for the last 24 years, a fairly correct estimate. “ That the loss of life under the two headings given above “should represent upwards of 75 per cent. of the total “ population seems almost incredible, but, from my own “personal experience, I can vouch for the comparative “correctness of these figures. One has only to travel “through the country to realise the terrible ravages of “ Dervish misrule, of which there is such painful evidence “in the wholesale destruction of towns and villages, and " the enormous tracts of once cultivated land now either a " barren wilderness, or overgrown with thorns and high “grass, necessitating immense labour to clear and bring “ again under the plough. As an instance I might cite one " of the many cases which have come under my personal “observation. Prior to 1882 the district comprising the " banks of the rivers Rahad and Dindar contained upwards “ of 800 villages. When this country was examined some “two years ago not a village remained, but through the “energetic action of the Governor, Colonel Gorringe, 28 new “ villages have sprung up.” Of the present total of 1,853,000 persons, 2,787 are Europeans, and 8,209 Abyssinians, Indians, Egyptians, etc.

The natives of the Sûdân may be roughly divided into-1. Tribes of Hamitic descent.— These are represented by the dwellers in the Eastern Desert, e.g., the Bishârîn, the Hadandowas, the Halangas, ‘Abâbdah, C'mmar‘ar, Beni ‘Amar, “Anaks,” etc. 2. Tribes of the Nûbas, or Barabara.- These live between the First and Fourth Cataracts, and have very dark, or black, skins, but are not Negroes; they are akin to certain tribes in the Nûba Mountains, in the Southern Sûdân. Like the tribes of the Eastern Desert, they have intermarried freely with Irabs, Turks, and Negroes. Their principal divisions are Dana ķalah, Maḥass, men of Sukkît, men of Halfa, and the Kanûz. 3. Arabs, namely, the Shaiķiya, Munâsîr, Rubâtâb, Miragât, Gaʻalîn, Fùng, ħamag, Shukriya, Humrân, Kababish, the, Bakkâra or cattle-owning tribes, etc. 4. Pure Black Tribes, e.g., the Shilluk, Dinka, Nuwwer, Bári, Madi, Shulla, Latûka, Makârak, Ganki, Banků (Bongs), ķülû, Gûr, Agâr, Niâm-Niam, the Farâtit tribes, etc. 5. Negroid Tribes.—The Fûrs, Birkad, Dâgô, Bartî, Mêdûb, etc. The Negro and Negroid tribes have in all ages produced slaves, and the Arab and Hamitic tribes have usually supplied the merchants who trafficked in them. From time immemorial natives of the Arabian Peninsula have entered the Sûdân in the east, and settled down in fertile places as opportunity offered. After A.D. 640 large numbers of Irabs entered the Sûdân vià Aswân, and Arab immigrants were many after the conquest of Egypt by Selim

in 1517

Religion. The greater number of the inhabitants of the Sûdân are Muḥammadans. The religion of Muḥammad came into the Sûdân from Egypt by way of Nubia, from Irabia by way of Sawâkin and Maşawa, and from North Ifrica by way of the desert road from Tunis to Dâr Für and Kordôfân. The Negro tribes are heathen, and in some places worship many strange objects. Among these belief in witchcraft and fetishes is universal.

Language. The commonest language in the Sûdân is Arabic. The Barâbara who live between the First and Fourth Cataracts speak a language to which the name Nubian has been given; four or five dialects of it are now distinguished. The tribes of the Eastern Desert speak a

language which Almkvist calls “Tu Bedāwiya," and it probably belongs to the old Hamitic group. The Negro tribes have a number of dialects peculiar to themselves. In ancient Egyptian times hieroglyphics were used in Nubia, and inscriptions in Egyptian were written in them. After the introduction of Christianity into Nubia as the official religion, Greek was used, and all the service books were in Greek. The language of the true Meroitic, Inscriptions is thought to be Hamitic.

Revenue.—The revenue of the Sûdân is derived from taxes on land, date-trees, boats, animals, houses, and roads; from royalties on gum, ivory, feathers, and indiarubber; from tribute from Nomad tribes; from sales of Government land, salt, etc. ; from Customs' dues, ferries, licences, court and market fees, fines, rent, stamps and telegrams, and transport (steamers and railways); and from an annual contribution by the Egyptian Government (£E. 33,000 in 1905). The land tax is paid in money or in kind; when paid in kind it is called “Ushur,“ i.l'., “tenth," one-tenth of the crop being taken by the authorities. The land tax in 1905 amounted to £E.79,424. The Customs duties are : (1) an ad valorem duty of 8 per cent. on all imports ; (2) an ad valorem duty of i per cent. on all exports.

The revenue of the Sûdân was in 1905 £E.569,000, and the expenditure was ££.688,000, i.e., there was an apparent deficit of £ E.119,000, which had to be made good by the Egyptian Government. From the showing of Lord Cromer, however, it is clear that a considerable sum of money was obtained by Egypt from Customs' duty on goods destined for the Sûdân, and that the real deficit was only £E.33,000 (Egypt, No. 1 (1906), p. 130). The revenue since the re-occupation of the Sûdân has been as follows:

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