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Imports.—The value of the imports, viâ Wâdi Halfa, in 1905 was £E. 1,092,000 as compared with £E.751,000 in 1904; the value of the imports, viâ Sawâkin, was £E.171,000 as compared with £E.137,000 in 1904. The exports, Wâdî Halfa, were £E.251,000 and via Sawâkin, £5.58,000.

The area under cultivation in 1904 was 529,239 acres, and in 1905 it was 704,872. The principal crops were barley, cotton, dhurra, millet, maize, onions, lubia, beans, wheat, and simsim (sesame). The areas planted with cotton and wheat were 23,898 and 22,000 acres respectively. 184,950 kantars of gum were exported, and the values of the ivory and ostrich feathers which passed through the Customs Houses were £E.42,000 and £E.15,000 respectively. The Government made agricultural loans to the value of E. 15,000 in 1905, interest being at the rate of 74 per cent. The total area of land taxed was 178,789 acres. The Sûdân Police Force contains 1,819 men. Posts and telegraphs: receipts, £E. 29,000. There are about 3,925 miles of telegraph lines open in the Sûdân, and in 1905 about 164,000 private telegrams were despatched. The value of the money which passed through the Post Office was £E.808,000. Civil public works cost £E. 130,000. At least 50,000 persons were vaccinated in 1905. Education : 1,533 boys were being

instructed in the Government schools, and of these 392 were at the Gordon College. An education rate is about to be levied in the Blue Nile Province and in Sennaar. Slavery : The professional slave dealers and raiders finding that their trade becomes more dangerous every year, and that the Government are serious in their intention to destroy the business, are gradually abandoning it. To transport slaves is now a very risky and difficult matter, and only the most devious routes can be used, for the British Inspector is ubiquitous. Moreover, the natives are beginning to realize that the slave traffic is punishable by law. Domestic slavery must necessarily linger on for some years, but the natives will soon find that paid servants are cheaper than slaves, and then it will die a natural death. The slavery department needs more inspectors, especially near the Abyssinian Frontier.

Justice. - The greatest care is taken by officials in the Sûdân that the law shall be administered without fear and without favour, and the method of procedure in the matter of criminal inquiry and as to arrest is borrowed from the Indian Code of Criminal Procedure ; that at the hearing is that of an Egyptian (or, substantially, of a British) courtmartial. Magistrates and judges have two classes of people to deal with, the negro and the Arab. As an illustration of the caution with which the principles of European criminal justice have to be applied Mr. Bonham-Carter quotes the following case. It appears that a man called Kwat Wad Awaibung was tried on the charge of murdering Ajak llad Deng, and having pleaded guilty he added: “The murdered “ Ajak Wad Deng owed me a sheep, but would not pay me. “ He said he would show me his work, and next day my “son was eaten by a crocodile, which was, of course, the “ work of Ajak Wad Deng, and for that reason I killed him. “We had had a feud for years, as I was a more successful “hippopotamus hunter than he was, and for that reason he " was practising witchery over me and my family."

The Sûdân is not under a military Government, in the ordinary acceptance of the terin, for all its more important features are essentially civil, even though the GovernorGeneral and his principal subordinates are military officers. In 1884 General Gordon wrote: “ The Soudan is a useless “possession, ever was so, and ever will be so"; and Colonel Stewart added, “I quite agree with General Gordon, that “the Soudan is an expensive and useless possession.” On this Lord Cromer remarks : “Without incurring a charge “ of excessive optimism, it may be anticipated that, with “the judicious expenditure of capital, and the continuous “application of a system of government such as that which " is now being very skilfully directed by Sir Reginald “ Wingate and his staff, the future of the country will be far “ less gloomy than was predicted by the two high authorities "quoted above. But progress will be slow.”

Writing in 1906 (Egypt, No. I, p. 156), he also says : “ There must be no undue haste. The progess of the “ Sûdân depends upon steady, continuous, unostentatious, "and combined efforts along the lines of a well-defined “ policy, from which there should be no divergence.”


Osmân Bey
Maho Bey ...
Khurshid Pâshâ
Ahmad Pasha Abû Udn
Ahmad Pâshâ Al-Miniklî
Khâlid Pasha
'Abd al-Latif Pâshâ
Rustam Pâshâ
Ismâ‘il Pâshâ Abû Gebel
Selîm Pasha
‘Ali Pashâ Sirrî ...

1825 1826 1826 1839 1844 1846 1850 1851

1852 1853


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‘Alî Pâshâ Sharkas
Arakil Bey ...
Hassan Bey Salama
Muḥammad Bey Rasikh
Mûsa Pâshâ Hamdi
Ja'far Pashâ Sâdiķ ...
Ja'far Pâshâ Mazhar
Mumtaz Pâshâ ...
Ismâ‘il Pâsha Ayûb
Gordon Pasha ...
Raouf Pasha
'Abd al-Kâder Pâshâ
‘Ala ad-Dîn Pâshâ ...
Gordon Pasha ...
Kitchener Pasha
Wingate Pasha

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The traveller wishing to visit Kharțûm from Wâdi Halfa may do so by two routes. He may either travel there direct by the Railway, or he may ride to Kerma, proceed by steamer from Kerma to Kassingar at the foot of the Fourth Cataract, thence by horse or camel, or by the new Karêma line to Abû Hamed, and on to Kharțûm by the main line The distance by the former route is about 575 miles, and by the latter about 950 miles. A glance at the map will show how much time and distance are saved by the Sûdân Railway, which, in going direct to Abû Hamed, cuts off the great bend of the Nile between Korosko and Abû Hamed; on the other hand, the traveller who goes direct to Kharțûm from Wâdî Halfa will see little of the teinples and other remains which still stand in certain parts of the Cataracts, and at Kurru, Zûma, Gebel Barkal, Núri, and on the “Island of Meroë.”

Wadi Halfa to Abû Hamed by Railway.—The line from Wâdî Halfa to Abû Hamed, a distance of about 232 miles, was begun on May 15, 1897, and reached Abû Hamed on October 31 of the same year ; the average daily progress was about 1} miles, but 34 miles were made in one day early in October. The line was laid by Lieut. Girouard, R.E., Lieut. E. C. Midwinter, R.E., and other officers, during the hottest time of the year, through a previously unmapped and waterless desert, and the work was so well done that trains carrying 200 tons of stores and supplies, drawn by engines weighing, without tender, 50 tons, could travel over it in safety at the rate of 25 miles per hour. The survey camp was always six miles in advance of railhead, the embankment party, 1,500 strong, followed at the

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