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A.D. an absolutely independent State. In 870 he built 868. the suburb of Cairo, called Al-ķațâi, which covers

an area of one square mile. He built a splendid palace under the old “ Dome of the Air,” and he supplied it with water by an aqueduct. His famous mosque was built on the top of the rocky hill of Yeskhur, on the spot where God is supposed to have talked with Moses. It contains true pointed arches, was built of new materials instead of old ones stolen from Christian churches, etc., and its 300 arches and pillars are built of brick. Its total

cost was over £63,000. 833. Abû'l-Jêsh Khumaraweyh, the second of Țûlûn's

seventeen sons, succeeded his father. In the battle against the Turkish Governors of Môșul and Anbâr he was seized with panic and filed, but his General, Sa'ad al-A'sar, stood firm, and eventually entered Damascus in triumph. Subsequently Khumâraweyh defeated his enemies in two pitched battles. He enlarged the suburb of Al-Kațâi, and made a beautiful garden of the Medân. He filled his “golden house" with pictures of himself, his wives, and his singers, and slept upon an air bed, which was laid upon a lake of quicksilver nearly 100 feet square. He was murdered by his slaves

at Damascus in 896. 896. Abû'l-'Asâkir Jêsh murdered three of his uncles,

and was himself murdered a few months later. Abû Mûsâ Hârûn succeeded when a boy of fourteen ; he was murdered by Shêbân, son of Țûlûn, at 'Abbâsa, a small town on the Syrian frontier, in 904. On January 1oth, 905, Muḥammad ibn Sulêmân, the General of the Khalifa of Baghdâd, marched into the suburb of ķațâi, put all the black troops to the sword, burnt their

A.D.

896. headquarters, and destroyed the beautiful buildings

everywhere. For four months murder, lust, and rapine reigned, and then Shêbân and all the other descendants of Țalûn were deported to Baghdad

and kept prisoners. 905. Muhammad al-Khalangi entered Al-Fusțâț; he

ruled Egypt for eight months, but was betrayed to the Khalisa's Government and taken to Baghdad, where he was executed in May, 906.

IV. THE FÅȚIMID KHALIFAS. 909. Al-Mahdi. He died in 934. 910. Tekin al-Khâssa. 914. Khubasa, the Fâțimid General, captured Alexandria. 915. Dhukā ar-Rûmî. 919. Restoration of Tekîn. 921. Mahmûd ibn Hamal (3 days). 921. Restoration of Tekin (a few days). 921. Hilâl ibn Badr. 923. Ahmad ibn Kêghalagh. 924. Restoration of Tekin. 933. Muḥammad ibn Tekin. 934. Al-Kâ'im. He died in 946. 935. Muḥammad ibn Tughj became master of Egypt;

he died at Damascus, and was buried in Jerusalem. He is best known as the Ikhshid. He laid out the beautiful “ Garden of Kâfûr” near the modern

bazaar of the brassworkers. 945. Al-Manşûr. He died in 953. 946. Abû'l'-Kasim. 961. Abû’l-Hasan 'Ali. 965. Abû'l-Misk Kâfûr, the black tutor of two of

the Ikhshid's sons; he died in 968.

A.D.

969. Al-Mu'izz was the first Fâțimid ruler of Egypt; he

belonged to the Shî'a section, i.e., the “freethinkers” among the Muḥammadans, who think that the succession to the Prophet's office belonged to 'Ali, the husband of Muḥammad's daughter Fâțma, and father of Muḥammad's only male descendants. He was an able and prudent ruler. The general of Mu'izz was Gawhar, who founded the new capital Al-Ķâhira, * i.e., Cairo, and built the

mosque Al-Azhar. Mu'izz died in 975. 975. Al-'Aziz. Great peace and prosperity in Egypt. 996. Al-Hakim was a social and religious madman. He

founded a hall of science, and established an observatory on the Muḥattam Hills. He declared that he was an Incarnation of God, and he founded the sect of the Druzes. He was murdered about

February 13, 1021. 1021. Zahir died of the plague in 1036. 1036. Ma'add or Abû Tamim Ma'add al-Mustanşir

bi-llâh ; in his reign Palestine and Syria were lost

to Egypt. 1094. Al-Musta'li. 1101. Abû-'Ali al-Manşûr. 1131. Al-Hâfiz. 1149. Az-Zafir. 1154. Al-Fâiz. 1160. Al-'Adid was the last of the Fațimid Khalîfas. 1169. Şalâh ad-Din, or Saladin ; born at Tekrît 1137, died

1193. He built the great walls of Cairo and the Citadel, and his architect Ķarâkûsh excavated the famous Well there, which is 280 feet deep. He also built the Gîzah Dyke.

القاهرة

V. THE AYYUBID DYNASTY OF EGYPT.

Saladin's successors were :

A.D.
1193. Al-'Aziz 'Othman, his son.
1198. Al-Manşûr Muhammad.
1200. Al-'Adil Sêyf ad-Dîn.
1218. Al-Kâmil Muhammad.
1238. Al-'Adil II.
1240. Aş-Şâlih Ayyûb, grandson of Saladin's brother.
1249. Al-Mu'azzam Tûrânsháh.
1250. Al-Ashraf Mûsâ.

VI. THE FIRST MAMLÛKS.* 1249. Louis IX collected 2,800 French knights, 5,000

archers, and sailed for Egypt in 1,720 ships. He took Damietta, and marched on to Manşûra, but here some 1,500 of the flower of his army were killed. Subsequently he retreated to Damietta, but the Saracens pursued him and annihilated the Christian army. It is said that 30,000 Crusaders were slain. King Louis and the remainder of his army were held at ransom for 10,000,000 francs, but Tûrânshâh is said to have reduced this sum by one-quarter.

The Mamlûks derive their name from the fact that they were originally slaves, who were either purchased or captured in war. The Bahri Mamlûks, i.e., "the white slaves of the

.مماليك plural manalik ,مملوك Singular mamlak •

A.D.

river,” were thus called because they lived on 1249. the Island of Rôda, opposite Fusțâț. The 25

Bahri rulers were :

Sheger ad-Durr, a Queen. 1250. Al-Mu'izz Aybek. He was murdered in his bath

by his wife in 1257. 1257. Al-Mansûr 'Ali ibn Aybek. He was deposed

in November, 1259. 1259. Al-Muzaffar Kuțuz. He conquered the Mongols,

who were led by Hulûgû. He was murdered in

October, 1260. 1260. Az-Zahir Rukn ad-din Bêbars. He was the

first Mamlûk Sulțân. He died in July, 1277. 1277. As-Sa'id Baraka Khân. He abdicated the

throne, and died in 1280. 1279. Al-Adil Selâmish. He was deposed. 1279. Al-Mansûr Kalâ'ûn. He built the Mâristân

(completed in 1284). He died in his tent in

1290. 1 290. Al-Ashraf Khalil. He captured 'Akka (Acre),

May 18th, 1292. He was murdered in 1293. 1293. An-Nasir Muḥammad. He was deposed in a

year, but restored in 1298 and 1309. 1294. Al-'Adil Ketbughâ. A terrible famine occurred

in his reign. 1296. Al-Mansûr Lâjîn. He was murdered in January,

1299. 1298. An-Nâşir (second reign). Deposed for 10 years. 1308. Al-Muzaffar Bébars II. He abdicated and

was shut up in prison in Gaza. 1309. An-Nasir (third reign). Reigned for 30 years

more. He died in June, 1341.

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