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king of Nubia had dominion over Mâķurrah and 'Alwah. The Mosque at Old Donķola was dedicated to the service of God A.D. 1317; it stands in a prominent place, and commands the country and the river.

Abû ķussi, 356 miles from Halfa, is the starting point of the great Kordôsân and Dâr Fûr caravan road.

Al-Dabbah (Debbeh), 371 miles from Halfa, originally a small village, was turned into a fortified place by the Turks; at this point the Nile is 750 yards wide. Debbeh is the starting point of the direct caravan road to Omdurmân.

Kúrta (Körtî), 416 miles from Halfa, on the west bank of the river, was the headquarters of Lord Wolseley's expedition to rescue General Gordon in 1884 ; nearly all the forces were concentrated there on Christmas Day of that year, and the withdrawal from the place began in March, 1885. From this point on the Nile to Matammah is a distance of 176 miles. Water is first met with 37 miles from Kôrtî or Ambiķôl, and 18 iniles further on are the Wells of Al-Huwêyât; 100 miles from Ambiķôl are the Gakdûl Wells, which are situated in one of the spurs of the Gebel Gillif range. The wells are water-worn basins at the bottom of a granite gorge, and the largest of the pools measures 180 feet by 30 feet ; the water is sweet. At the distance of 150 miles from Ambikôl are the Wells of Abû Klea, and 18 miles further on is the Well of Shabakat, which is 12 feet in diameter and 50 feet deep.

At Kurru, Zuma (east bank), and Tankâsi (west bank), 7 to 10 miles from Marawî, are the remains of large groups of pyramids, but the stone casings have been removed by many generations of Muhammadans for building their tonibs, and for making the foundations of the supports of their water-wheels. The cores of most of these pyramids were built of mud bricks, but in each pyramid

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field are the ruins of at least one well-built step pyramid made of stone.

Marawi (east bank), and Sanam Abû-Dôm (west bank), 447 miles from Halfa, mark the site of the ancient and famous city of Napata, the momento Nept,

5 Nepita, of the Egyptian inscriptions. The ancient city seems to have been situated on the west bank, over which, on account of the bend in the river, the sun rises. It must have been a city of very considerable size, for whenever any excavations were made for the purpose of building block-houses, etc., in 1897, when Sanam Abû-Dôm was the headquarters of the Frontier Field Force of the Egyptian Army, remains of buildings and portions of large sandstone columns were generally found at the depth of a few feet below the surface. Away in the low hills on the west bank, a few miles from the river, are the remains of a number of rock-hewn tombs, and on the east bank, about three or four miles up-stream from Sanam Abû-Dôm, lie the pyramids and ruins of the temples of Napata. The name Sanam Abû-Dôm means the place of graven images which is situated among dôm palms, and proves that there were ancient ruins of one or more temples in the immediate neighbourhood. At Marawi, just opposite, are the ruins of one of the brick and stone forts which are so common in the country, and a mosque, and close by is a settlement of the brave Shaiķia Arabs, whose ancestors several centuries ago came from Arabia and possessed considerable power in the country. Next comes the village of Shibba, and straight ahead is the striking mountain called Gebel Barkal by the Arabs, and Tu-āb, the 'Holy (or Pure) Mountain' in the Egyptian inscriptions.

This mountain is 302 feet high, and is about fiveeighths of a mile long; it is the most prominent object in the landscape, and can be seen for many miles round. On the plain by the side of the mountain are the ruins of eight or nine pyramids, and on the crest of the rising ground are eight more; they are, however, much dwarfed in appearance by the huge mass of the mountain. The pyramids in the plain vary in size from 23 feet to 88 feet square; those on the hill vary from 33 feet to 65 feet square, and from 35 to 60 feet in height. Before each pyramid there stood a chapel containing one or more chambers, the walls inside being decorated with reliefs, in which the deceased was represented standing in adoration before the gods of the Holy Mountain, and receiving offerings of

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Scene from the Chapel of a Pyramid at Gebel Barkal. incense, etc., from priests and others. The above illustration, taken from Cailliaud's Voyage, will give a good idea of the class of reliefs found in the chapels, but the slabs from which it was first drawn at Gebel Barkal have long since disappeared. The general characteristics are, of course, Egyptian, but the details of treatment are peculiar to the artists and sculptors of Nubia. The writer excavated the shafts of one of the pyramids here in 1897, and at the depth of about 25 cubits found a group of three chambers, in one of which were a number of bones of the sheep which was sacrificed there about

2000 years ago, and also portions of a broken amphora which had held Rhodian


Part of a second shaft, which led to the mummy chamber, was also emptied, but at a depth of 20 cubits it was found to be full of water; and having no means for pumping it out, the mummy chamber could not be entered. The principal ruins of temples are :

1. The Temple of Tirhâşâh (a). Taharqa, the Tirhâşâh of the Bible, was the third king of the XXVth dynasty; he began to reign about B.C. 693, and reigned over 25 years. From the excavations which Mr. Hoskins


The Pyramids and Temples of Gebel Barkal. (Drawn from Lepsius.)

A Temple of Tirhâķah.
B Temple of Piānkhi.
c Pyramids.
D Gebel Barkal.

made at Gebel Barkal, it is clear that four pillars of a porch or portico stood before the pylon, which was 11 feet deep and 63 feet wide. The court, which measured about 59 feet by 50 feet, contained 16 columns, 8 round and 8 square ;

their diameter was about 33 feet, and their height 18 feet. A small hypostyle hall with 8 columns led into the sanctuary, wherein was the shrine of the god and his companions; on the west side of the sanctuary is one room, and on the east are two. The total length of the temple was about 120 feet. The chambers are decorated with reliefs, in which the king is depicted worshipping the gods of Gebel Barkal ; many of the reliefs were painted with bright colours. Since Hoskins and Lepsius were at Gebel Barkal, a huge mass of rock crashed down from the

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top of the mountain, and did great damage to the ruins of this temple. Between the temples of Tirhâşâh and Piankhi are the ruins of a small temple building which consisted of two chambers, the first containing 4 columns, and the second an altar ; about 250 yards to the north of these are

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