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by the arrangement of Sulêman Wâd Ķamr, the shêkh of the Munâşîr tribe. The British troops, on February 17, 1885, destroyed the house and palm-trees and water-wheels of this shekh, and three days later the property of Fakri Wâd Atmân, in whose house at Hebbah Colonel Stewart had been murdered, was also destroyed. The ill-fated steamer was seen tightly fixed on a rock about 200 yards from the river, with her bottom about 20 feet above lowwater level; she was pitted with bullet marks and rent by fragments of shell.
Near Abû Hamed, 587 miles from Wâdi Halfa by river and about 232 by rail, is the head of the Fourth Cataract. On August 7, 1897, the village was captured by General Sir A. Hunter, and about 1,200 men of the Dervish garrison there were slain ; at this battle Major Sidney and Lieut. FitzClarence were killed. Abû Hamed derives its name from a local shekh who is buried here, and whose memory is greatly venerated in the neighbourhood, and it owes its importance entirely to the fact that the caravans, which crossed the Nubian desert, started from it. It is said that any article left at the tomb of the shêkh by a traveller on his departure, will be found there uninjured on his return! At Abû Hamed are excellent baths for ladies and gentlemen.
The Abû Hamed-Karêma Railway. The Junction from which travellers leave the main line from Halfa to Kharțûm is at No. 10 Station in the Abú Hamed Desert, about 18 miles from Abû Hamed. The engineers who surveyed the line found that the cost of making a railway close to the river along the right bank of the Fourth Cataract would, on account of the hilly nature of the district, be prohibitive, and the line is therefore laid on the flat desert behind the hills on the river bank From No. 10 Station it proceeds to Dakhfili, a large camping
ground close to the river, opposite Shirri Island, about 70 miles from No. 10 Station, and 75 miles from Merawî. This is the only place en route where the railway touches the river. The terminus of the line is at Karêma, 138 miles from No. 10 Station, close to Gebel Barkal. The line was built by Capt. E. C. Midwinter, R.E., Mr. C. G. Hodgson, Mr. G. B. Macpherson Grant, and Mr. H. V. Hawkins, and was opened on the 8th of March, 1906, by Sir Reginald Wingate, Governor-General of the Sûdân. From Karêma steamers run at regular intervals to and from Kerma, between June and March, and thus the produce of the Dongola Province can now be sent without difficulty to Atbara and the Red Sea and to Khartûm. Every traveller who can spare the time should take the opportunity of visiting Gebel Barkal and the remains of the temples of Piānķhi, Senka-Amen-seken, and Tirhâkâh, and the Pyramids of Gebel Barkal and Nûri. The ruins of the Christian monastery in the Wâdî al-Ghazâl are worth a visit. It is now easy to visit Old Dongola, and the Island of Arķô where there are statues, and the famous quarries on the Island of Tombos. The river scenery between Merawî and Dabba is lovely, and there is much to interest the traveller who cares for the Sûdân in the now thriving Province of Dongola. The cost in time and money of paying a visit to the site of Napata, the ancient capital of the Northern Sûdân, need not be great, and we may be sure that the authorities, through their able governor of the Province, Colonel H. W. Jackson Påshâ, will afford every reasonable facility. Until the opening of the Karêma Railway it was not possible to visit the interesting bend in the river where Merawî lies without considerable cost and trouble, but now this is all changed, and we may hope that tourists will be sufficiently numerous to induce the Government to continue the line to New Dongola and perhaps even to Kerma. The closing of the Halfa-Kerma line will be deplored by all archeologists, for to all but people with much leisure and money it practically cuts off the possibility of visiting Gazîrat al-Malik, Semnah, Kummah, 'Amâra, Sâi, Suwârda, Dôsha, Saddênga, Şulb and other sites where ancient remains exist.
Abû Hamed to Kharțûm by Railway.—Between Abû Hamed and Kharțûm the traveller will pass the following stations :-Mashra ad-Daķêsh, mile 248; . Abû Dis, mile 267; Sherêk, mile 291; Abû Sallim, mile 318; Al-Abidiyah, mile 343; and Berber is reached at mile 361. For the first 70 miles the line runs close to the Nile, it then turns sharply into the desert, in which it runs for 20 miles, when it returns to the Nile bank, along which it runs into Berber. Before Abû Hamed and Berber were connected by railway, the journey was made partly by river and partly by land, the reason being that between Nedeh, 68 miles from Abû Hamed, and Bashtanab, the navigation was impeded for 4 miles by rocks, and by the Fifth Cataract, which extended from Umm Hashiya to Ganênetta, a distance of about 14 miles. Nedeh is at the foot of the Abû Sinûn Cataract, better known as the Al-Başara Rapid; the Fifth Cataract is called Shellâl al-Himar, or the 'Cataract of the wild ass[es], and the end of it is about 88 miles from Abû Haned.
Berber, or Al-Makerif (latitude north 18° 1'), on the east bank of the river, marks the northern boundary of the country of the Barabara, which extended as far south as Abyssinia, and included all the land on the east bank of the Nile between the Niles and the Red Sea. To this point on the Nile, from very ancient times, the products of the Sûdân, gum, ivory, ebony, gold, curious animals, slaves, etc., have been brought on their road to the coast of the Red Sea at Sawâkin, and it is probable that, for many reasons, the Sûdân boatmen were not in the habit of pro
ceeding further north. The country round about Berber is rich, and was, and still is, with care, capable of producing large crops of grain of various kinds, which are sufficient for the needs of a city of considerable size; the city, however, owed its importance, not to the grain-producing qualities of the neighbourhood, but to its position on the great caravan routes to and from the Sadân, and the facilities which it offered for traffic and barter.
The distance from Berber to Sawâkin is about 245 miles. Two principal routes are laid down by the Intelligence Department of the Egyptian Army, but the ordinary caravan route is viâ Obak, 57 miles from Berber, Ariab, 111 miles from Berber, Kokreb, 145 miles from Berber, Dissibil, 200 miles from Berber, and Tambuk, 219 miles from Berber. The old town of Berber is described as having been much like a town of Lower Egypt, with dusty, unpaved streets, and houses built of unbaked bricks, and having flat roofs ; in the early years of the XIXth century it possessed a few large mosques, and abundant palm and acacia trees. Under Turkish rule the town lost much of its prosperity, and the Dervishes ended what the Turkish officials began. The new town lies to the north of the old town, and contained many large wellbuilt houses, but most of them have been without tenants for years, and are now in ruins. Old and new Berber straggle along the river bank for a distance of six miles. Captain Count Gleichen estimated the population of Berber in 1897 at 12,000, of which 5,000 were males. Berber fell into the hands of the Mahdi's forces on May 26, 1884, but it was re-occupied by the Egyptian troops on September 6, 1897, and a week later General Sir A. Hunter entered the town with his army. At mile 384 from Halfa is Atbara Junction, whence travellers can proceed by the Nile-Red Sea Railway to Sawakin and Port Sûdân.
The Nile-Red Sea Railway.—The history of Egypt and of the Egyptian Sûdân up to the period of the XXVIth dynasty shows that the greater part of the trading which was done between the two countries passed up and down the Nile and along the great desert routes in the Eastern and Western Deserts. There was no easy outlet for Sûdân trade on the west, and none worth mentioning on the east. There were, no doubt, ports at the places now called Sawakin and Maşawa' in the earliest times, and we are justified in assuming that there was a certain amount of sea-borne trade carried on between the inhabitants of the mainland and those of the Peninsula of Arabia. During the rule of the Saïte kings many of the trade routes between Egypt and various parts of the Egyptian Sûdân were revived and developed, and under the Ptolemies the traffic on them became brisk. Still, so far as we know no Ptolemy ever made any attempt to connect the Nile in the Northern Sûdân with the Red Sea by means of a desert route with wells at comparatively frequent intervals. Both Ptolemies and Romans followed the example of the earlier kings of Egypt, and forced all the trade of the Sûdân through Egypt. After the conquest of Egypt by the Arabs, A.D. 640, immigration of Arabs into the Sûdân took place on a fairly large scale, and the new-comers settled down on the Nile and in many a fertile spot in the Egyptian Sûdân. In process of time communication between the Nile and the Red Sea became frequent, and regular caravan routes were formed. The slave merchants, who were usually Arabs, exported by their means slaves from the country south of Khartum, and imported stuffs, etc., which they bartered for slaves gold, gum, etc. In 1517 we find that Selîm, the Turkish conqueror of Egypt, sent an expedition into the Sûdân vià Maşawa', and we know that it invaded Ethiopia, and made its way westwards as far as Sennaar, where the Fûngs had established their capital. Further to the north there was a