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No. 9. A complete pyramid, built of well-cut stones, with a ruined chapel.

No. 10. Pyramid of Kaltela 另 ty whose prenomen was Kalka

The other pyramids of this group are in ruins and nothing useful can be said about them.

C. The third group of pyramids, about forty in number, lies about a mile to the west of the northern and southern groups. They are half buried in sand, are unimportant, and many of them were built of stones taken from the southern group.

D. The fourth group of pyramids, about 112 in number, lies still farther to the west, on the edge of the desert, near the cultivable land by the river. Cailliaud called the group the “Pyramids of As-Sûr” and Lepsius “Group C.” They varied in height from 10 to 60 feet, and the largest of them stood in walled enclosures. From two of them Lepsius obtained a stele and an altar bearing inscriptions in the Meroïtic character.

Between Kabûshiyah and Shendi the populous village of Taragma is passed at mile 460 from Halfa.

Shendi, on the east bank of the river, 95 miles from the Atbara, was once a large town, containing several thousands of inhabitants, and possessing a considerable trade with the northern and southern provinces on the east bank of the Nile. In the year 1820 Muḥammad ‘Ali sent his son Ismâ‘il Pâshâ with 5,000 soldiers to conquer Sennaar, and another force of about the same strength to conquer Kordofân.

Ismâ'îl was successful in his mission, but the year following he was invited by Nimr, the Nubian king, to a banquet in his palace at Shendî, and during the course of the entertainment the palace was set on fire and the Egyptian prince was burned to death. Muḥammad Bey at once marched to Shendi, and, having perpetrated awful cruelties upon nearly all its inhabitants, destroyed houses and gardens and property of every kind. Shendî was a Dervish stronghold for some years, but it was re-occupied by the Egyptian troops on March 26th, 1898. Here are the Headquarters of the Sudân Cavalry.

Matammah, on the west bank of the Nile, 98 miles from the Atbara, had, in 1885, about 3,000 inhabitants, two or more mosques, and a market twice a week.

In 1897 the Gaalîn Arabs in and about the town revolted against the Khalifa's authority, and having fortified the place they awaited the result. Mahmûd, by the Khalifa's orders, attacked it on July 1st, and after a three days' fight, all their ammunition being expended, the Gaalîn were compelled to submit, for Mahmûd had surrounded the town with his troops. The victors promptly slew 2,000 men, and women and children were massacred mercilessly; the prisoners were drawn up in a line and treated thus : the first was beheaded, the second lost a right hand, the third his feet,

on until every man had been mutilated. The Gaalîn chief, 'Abd-Allah wâd Sûd, was walled up at Omdurmân in such a position that could neither stand nor sit, and was thus left to die of hunger and thirst (Royle, op. cit., p. 521). General Sir A. Hunter bombarded the town on October 16, 17, and November 3, 1897, and it was evacuated by Mahmûd in March, 1898.

About 20 miles south of Shendi, on the east bank, is the entrance to the Wâdî Bâ Nagaa, and near it is a lit:le village called Bà Nagaa ; three miles down the river are the ruins of a small ancient Nubian temple, which, according to Hoskins, measured about 150 feet in length; it contained 6 pilasters about 5 feet square. The principal remains are two columns on which are figures of Bes in relief. Travelling in a south-easterly direction, and passing Gebel Buerib,

and so

after a journey of ten hours, the ruins of Nagaa are reached; these are usually called by the natives of the district, Mușawwarât* an-Nagaa, i.e., the sculptures of Nagaa,' as opposed to the Mușawwarât al-Kirbîkân, i.e., the sculptures of Bâ Nagaa in the Wâdî Kirbîkân, and the Musawwarât as-Sufra, i.e., the sculptures of the Wâdî as-Sufra. The ruins consist of the remains of at least seven temples, and there is no doubt that they belong to the late Ptolemaic or early Roman period. The reliefs here illustrate how closely the architects and masons tried to copy Egyptian models, and the cartouches show that the kings, whoever they were, adopted prenomens formed on the same lines as those used by the old kings of Egypt. The gods worshipped were the same as those of Napata and other Nubian cities, but there are here in addition to them a god with three lion's heads, a god with rays emanating from his head (Apollo or Helios?), and a god resembling in form Jupiter Sarapis. Before satisfactory plans of the temples could be drawn, excavations and clearances on a large scale would have to be made.

Twelve miles from Nagaa, in a north-easterly direction, is a comparatively small circular valley, which, because it resembles in shape a circular brass tray, is called AşŞufra. Here are the Musawwarât aş-Şufra, or ruins of a group of buildings enclosed within walls, without inscriptions and without reliefs, which, according to Hoskins, measured 760 feet by 660 feet; there were no entrances on any side except the north-west, where there were three. The walls enclosed five or six small temples, in one of which were several pillars. Cailliaud thought that the ruins of the main building were those of a school, and Hoskins of a hospital, while Lepsius offered no opinion ;

* Arabic ligue sculptures, bas-reliefs, images, paintings, and

the like.


but it is useless to theorize until systematic excavations have shown what the plan of the group of buildings actually

These ruins are about 50 minutes' ride from Bir Nagaa, i.e., the · Well of Nagaa.' This well is very deep, and its sides are lined with stone. Representatives of all the tribes who pasture their flocks in the neighbouring deserts come here and draw up water in goat skins, which are tied at the four corners, and pour it into the shallow troughs scooped in the ground, wherefrom the animals drink. Women, as well as men, arrayed in scanty garments, draw water, and when a number of them are hard at work, and the ground round about the well is covered with flocks, the traveller has before him a phase of desert life which once seen will never be forgotten.

About 1} miles distant are the ruins of a small temple with reliefs, on which men are depicted riding elephants, lions, panthers, and other wild animals; all the ruins in this neighbourhood seem to belong to the Roman period. From Shendî an almost direct route runs to Nagaa, distance about 30 miles, and there is another to Aş-Sufra, distance about 26 miles.

At mile 511 Al-Méga is passsed. Near Gebel Gari, 525 miles from Wâdi Halfa, begins the Sixth Cataract, commonly called the Shablûka Cataract; it begins at the north end of Mernat Island, on which General Gordon's steamer, the 'Bordein,' was wrecked on January 31st, 1885, and extends to Gebel Rawyân, a distance of 11 miles. At the entrance to the Shablûka gorge, the channel turns sharply to the east, and is only 200 yards wide; in July the rate of the current through this channel exceeds 10 miles per hour. The Dervishes guarded the northern end of the channel by five forts, four on the western, and one on the eastern bank. From this point to Omdurman there is little to be seen of general interest. At mile 538 the Station of Rawyán is passed, and at mile 547 is Wad

Ramla; near the latter place is Geli, where Zubêr Pashâ has taken up his abode. At mile 560 is Kubâlâb. The hills of Kerreri, seven miles from Omdurmân, on the west bank, mark the site of the great Battle of Omdurmân, which took place on Friday, September 2nd, 1898, when the Khalifa's army was practically annihilated ; on the same day the Sirdar marched into the city of Omdurmân, and the rule of the Khalifâ was at an end.

At mile 575 from Wâdî Halfa the station of Halfâya is reached. Halfâya owes whatever importance it may possess to the fact that it is the terminus of the railway, for the native village has always been insignificant. It lies on the right bank of the Blue Nile, a little above Tuti Island, and is exactly opposite Khartům. There is no bridge, at present, across the river, but the passage by steam ferry is short Borings are now being made in the river-bed with the view of finding a suitable place for a bridge to connect Halfâya (Khartûm North) and Khartům. It is also intended to build a bridge to join Khartûm and Omdurmân.

The town of Omdurmân, or more correctly Umm Durmân, 200 miles from the Atbara, population 50,000, was, in the year 1882, nothing but a small village lying nearly opposite to Khartûm, with very few inhabitants, most of whom were brigands. The huts were made of straw and palm branches, and resembled those of most of the other unimportant villages in the Sûdân. Near this village General Gordon built a fort, which was called Omdurmân Fort,' and, with the forts on Tûtî Island, it formed the chief external defences of Kharțûm. He placed in command of it Faragalla Pâshâ, who had been promoted by Gordon from the rank of captain to that of general officer in one year. In January, 1885, the Mahdi detailed Abû Anga and Fadl al-Mawla to besiege the fort, and the former succeeded in entrenching himself between it and the river. When the food and

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