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means 'trunk of an elephant,' and the town was thus called because the tongue of land on which it stands resembled this object. Kharțûm was founded between 1820 and 1823 by the sons of Muḥammad 'Ali, soon after Nimr, the Shekh of

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Khartûm and Omdurmân in 1905.

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Shendî, destroyed Prince Ismâ‘il and his companions by burning down the house in which they were dining. Kharțûm was the centre of the slave trade, and its merchants waxed rich through it; the Turkish officials took care to participate

in the profits, and they abused their power to the utmost. The Mahdi's rebellion was, at the beginning, the natural protest against Turkish misrule and veniality as illustrated by the awful success of the slave trade. In 1884 General Gordon went to Khartûm to withdraw the Egyptian garrison, but very soon after the city was besieged by the Mahdi and his followers, and Gordon's position became desperate : famine, too, stared him in the face, for he distributed daily among the destitute in the city the supplies which would have been ample for the garrison.

On January 15th, 1885, Faragalla, the commander of the loyal troops in the fort of Omdurmân, capitulated to the Dervishes, and the whole of that town received the Mahdi's pardon. During the whole of January Gordon continued to feed all the people in Khartûm ; "for that he had, no doubt, “God's reward, but he thereby ruined himself and his “ valuable men. Everyone was crying out for bread, and “the stores were almost empty” (Slatin, Fire and Sword, p. 338). On the night of January 25th, Gordon ordered a display of fireworks in the town to distract the people's attention, and in the early dawn of the 26th the Mahdists crossed the river, and, swarming up the bank of the White Nile where the fortifications had not been finished, conquered the Egyptian soldiers, who made but feeble resistance, and entered the town. Numbers of Egyptians were massacred, but the remainder laid down their arms, and, when the Mahdists had opened the gates, marched out to the enemy's camp. The Dervishes rushed to the Palace, where Gordon stood on the top of the steps leading to the diwan, and in answer to his question, “Where is your master, the Mahdî ?” their leader plunged his huge spear into his body. He fell forward, was dragged down the steps, and his head having been cut off was sent over to the Mahdi in Omdurmân. The fanatics then rushed forward and dipped their spears and swords in his blood, and in 3 short time the body became “a heap of mangled flesh.” The Mahdî professed regret at Gordon's death, saying that he wished he had been taken alive, for he wanted to convert him. As soon as Gordon was murdered, "the man who was anxious about the safety of every one but himself," Kharțûm was given up to such a scene of massacre and rapine as has rarely been witnessed even in the Sudân ; those who wish to read a trustworthy account of it may consult Slatin Pâshâ's Fire and Sword in the Súdân, p. 344 ff. On September 4th, 1898, Sir Herbert Kitchener and some 2,000 or 3,000 troops steamed over to Khartûm from Omdurmân and hoisted the English aud Egyptian flags amid cheers for Her Majesty Queen Victoria, and the strains of the Khedivial hymn, and the thunders of the guns from the gunboats. The rebuilding of the city began immediately after the arrival of the British, and the visitor can judge for himself of the progress made in this respect during the eight years of peace which have followed its occupation by a civilized power. Colonel Stanton, the Governor, says: “ During 1905 there was a steady and “ general progress throughout the province and city of “Khartûm. The past year has seen the extension of the “steam tramways to Omdurmân, the construction of a new “ carriage road to the Mogren Ferry, along the Blue Nile, and “a road from Kharțâm North due east, to connect eventually “with Kassala. Plots of building land which two years ago “were bought and sold for £E. 30 and £E.40 have this year “changed hands at over £E. 1,000.”

The most noticeable building in Kharûm is the Palace of the Sirdar, built by Lord Kitchener on the site of the old palace, on the steps of which Gordon was speared. The British and Egyptian flags float over its roof, and two sentries guard its door, one British and one Sâdânî ; by the wall on each side stands a 40-pounder siege gun, which was brought up to shell Omdurmân. The building can be seen from a considerable distance, and the tribes of the south will regard it in the same way as the Egyptians regard the Citadel at Cairo, i.e., as the seat of the power which rules them.

After the Palace, the next most prominent building at Kharțûm is the Gordon Memorial College (Director, Mr. James Currie), * a stately edifice which stands on the left bank of the Blue Nile a mile or so upstream in the suburb of Bûrî. The College is at once a worthy memorial of General Gordon, the hero of Khartům, a proof of Lord Kitchener's shrewdness and foresight, and the centre of the educational system of the Sûdân. In appealing to the British nation for means to build and endow the College, Lord Kitchener’s general idea was “to give the most practical, useful education possible to the boys for their future in the Sûdân,” and he intended Arabic to be the basis of that education. The designer of the building was Fabricius Pashâ, and the works were carried out by Colonel Friend, R.E., Director of Works. It was opened by Lord Kitchener on the 8th of November, 1902, in the presence of all the British officials in Khartům, and all the native notables, official and otherwise. The College was originally intended to be a sort of "Higher Primary School ” where education was to be given on the lines of the schools at Aswân and Wâdí Halfa, but on the very day of opening it was clear that this intention would have to be modified. For during the opening ceremony a letter to Lord Cromer by Sir William Mather was read by Mr. James Currie, the Director of the College, in

* Patron : H.M. the King. President: Lord Kitchener. Hon. Treasurer: Lord Hillingdon. Hon. Sec: Baldwin S. Harvey, Esq. The Committee and Trustees are : Lord Kitchener, Sir Reginald Wingate (ex-otuio), A. Falconer Wallace (ex-officio), Lord Cromer, Lord Rothschild, Lord Hillingdon, Lord Revelstoke, Sir Ernest Cassel, II. Colin Smith, Sir H. Craik, K.C.B., H. S. Wellcome, Esq., Sir W. Mather.

which the writer announced a splendid gift to the College of "the equipment for a Department of Manual Training "and Technical Instruction, together with a Complete " Apparatus for the establishment of practical Workshops “in the College.” This was an important gift, for it placed in the hands of Mr. Currie the means for turning out a regular supply of Carpenters, Fitters, and Smiths, besides youths who were sufficiently educated to be employed as clerks, etc. In June, 1904, the Governors of the College decided to devote the Beauchamp Bequest of £55,000 to a considerable extension of the Workshops. Before the building of the College was finished Mr. Henry S. Wellcome presented to the College an efficient analytical and bacteriological laboratory, equipped with all the necessary apparatus, and thus the scope of the education which was to be given in the Institution was enlarged considerably before teaching actually began. On turning to Mr. James Currie's Report and Accounts to 31st December, 1904, we find that hitherto the College, apart from the Laboratories, has been divided into three sections : a Primary School, a Training College for Schoolmasters and Judges in the Muḥammadan Courts, and the Instructional Workshops. The Primary School has reached its final form, and is now attended by 180 boys. The Boarding House is full, some 25 boys, many of them belonging to well-known and influential families, being in residence; it is being enlarged, and when the alterations are complete, 50 boys can be taken in. The Military School, intended for Súdânî cadets, has made a good beginning. The Training College has also prospered, and a four years' curriculum is now in operation. The Instructional Workshops are doing excellent work in turning youths into Carpenters, Fitters, and Smiths. As the result of the publication of Sir William Garstin's Report on the Basin of the Upper Nile Mr. James Currie has thought out a scheme by which it will

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