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be possible to train young men to become subordinate agents in the furtherance of the great schemes in connection with irrigation, on which the salvation of the country depends. He proposes to form (1) an ordinary secondary school in which a good general education would be provided, and (2) a small engineering school for the training of competent overseers of works and land surveyors. In furtherance of this scheme Lord Cromer has provided £11,500 for the building and furnishing of a new wing to the Gordon College. Thus the College has become a most useful factor in the development of the Sûdân, and, in Lord Cromer's words, “it may be asserted with confidence that the fore"sight shown by Lord Kitchener in founding it has been "justified by events.” It has been decided that a portion of the staff of the Higher School shall be British, and Mr. Drummond, of the School of Agriculture in Egypt, and Mr. Simpson, Professor of Hebrew at Edinburgh, have been appointed. The Workshops are under the direction of Mr. S. C. Rhodes, the Chemical Laboratories are under Dr. Beam, and the Travelling Pathologist is Dr. Sheffield Neave. It has in some quarters been suggested that the general curriculum of the College is too utilitarian, but, as Mr. Currie says, it is essential to remember the character of the people with whom he is dealing. ".1 “people whose only ideal of higher education for centuries “has consisted in the study of grammatical conundrunis "and arid theological and metaphysical disputations, surely “needs the lesson that all truth apprehended intellectually “must first and foremost be honoured by use before it can “benefit the recipient.” It is quite clear that the work of the College as an educational power, both from a theoretical and practical point of view is proceeding on the right lines, and the success already achieved speaks volumes in praise of Mr. Currie's prudent, judicious, and cautious manage ment of the great Institution which has been committed to

his care. At the end of 1905 there were 1,533 boys under instruction at the various Government Schools in the Sûdân. Of these 392 were at the Gordon College, 229 at the Higher Elementary Schools, 29 at the Training Colleges at Omdurmân and Sawâkin, and 723 at the elementary vernacular schools, which have now been established at thirteen centres. As a proof of the general interest in education which exists among the people in certain parts of the Sûdân, Lord Croner mentions that the principle of levying a raie for educational purposes has been sanctioned, and that a beginning will be made in the Blue Nile Province and in Sennaar.

Visitors to the College will find the Museum well worth a visit. In it are well exhibited most interesting series of specimens of the products of the Sûdân, with labels containing descriptions of the objects which are short and to the point. There are many memorials of the last months of General Gordon's life and not the least interesting are the lithographic stones and printing press whereon his Arabic proclamations were printed. The nucleus of a small collection of Egyptian and Meroïtic Antiquities has been formed here, and among these may be mentioned a fine statue and a stele of Usertsen III, the first Egyptian conqueror of the Sûdân, from the Island of Gazîrat al-Malik near Semnah; a statue of Khu-taui-Rā, a king of the XIIIth dynasty from Semnah; a statue of Sebek-em-heb, of the XIIIth dynasty, a statue of the god Osiris from the temple built by Thothmes III at Semnah; a statue of Tcha-áb, a high official under the XVIIIth dynasty; a series of inscriptions, etc., from the Island of Sâi, Suwârda, etc. ; inscriptions and reliefs from the temple of Tirhâkâh at Semnah ; a large series of earthenware jars and other vessels, bones of animals, skulls, etc., from the Pyramids of Mervë; a group of painted vases of the Christian Period from Argîn near Wâdi Halfa; pottery, etc., of the Christian

Period from ķațêna on the White Nile; the sepulchral stele of “the holy and pious Jesus,” Bishop of the Island of Sâi, who sat for thirty-two years, and died at the age of eightytwo. When Sir Reginald Wingate has finished building the Museum for Antiquities, it is understood that all the above objects will be removed there.

In another portion of the building Dr. Andrew Balfour carries on his great work in the Wellcome Laboratory, Here the privileged visitor can be shown in full work the processes by the study of which he is enabled to work out the life history of mosquitoes and of bacilli of all kinds found in the Sûdân. His investigations into the causes of disease in man and beast in the Sûdân have always been attended with excellent results, and those who are qualified to pass an opinion on his special work declare that he has thrown much light on the maladies from which Sûdânî cattle suffer, and has shown the way to stamp them out. Led by him the “Mosquito Brigade” has done a great work in Khartûm itself, and there is far less malaria there now than there was in 1899. His work has gone on side by side with that of Colonel Stanton, the Governor, whose strict system of strett scavenging has done much to turn Kharțùm into the pleasant town it now is in the winter months. Already the Gordon College is doing a work of much wider scope than was ever contemplated by its founder Lord Kitchener.

Near the War Office Sir Reginald Wingate has caused to be rebuilt the north wall of the chapel of Pyramid No. 11 (Group A), which he directed Mr. J. W. Crowfoot, Inspector of Education in the Sûdân, and myself to take down stone by stone in 1905. The reliefs on the wall illustrate the funeral ceremonies which were carried out at the burial of the great Queen, who was probably called Candace, and in them we see her making offerings to the gods of the Other World, and her soul being weighed in the Balance in the Hall of Osiris. These reliefs are of a very

elaborate character, and are well-preserved, and are the finest and most typical examples of Meroïtic funerary sculpture which have hitherto been discovered. The thanks of all archæologists are due to Sir Reginald Wingate for removing these valuable antiquities to a place of safety.

In passing the garden of the Palace the visitor should not fail to notice the stone Ram, which was brought there from Sôba. It is a fine example of the animal which, at a very early period, was regarded as the form in which the Nubian Amen became incarnate.

Statue of General Gordon.—This is a copy in bronze of the famous work by the late Mr. Onslow Ford, which was made for the Mess of the Royal Engineers at Chatham, and every one will rejoice that the kind and fearless defender of Kharțûm has been commemorated in such a worthy manner. The statue is at once the symbol of the triumph of law and order over barbarism, of the resurrection of Kharțům, and of the admiration of General Gordon's countrymen for a soldier who was, by universal consent, a brave, un

General Gordon Pâshâ. selfish and great man. That he failed to carry out impossible orders, and to perform a work the magnitude and difficulty of which were


rightly appreciated neither by his official supporters nor himself, in no wise detracts from the merit of the splendid heroism of the gallant officer who was careful for everyone but himself, and who gave his life for the Sûdân.

The Mosque, which has been built by the Government at a cost of over £E.8,000 is a fine building, and is the largest in the Sûdân. The Zoological Gardens, under the direction of Mr. Butler, are not yet fully developed owing to lack of funds.

In conclusion a few words must be said about the wonderful progress which has been made in the Sûdân during the eight years which have passed since the re-occupation of the country by Egypt. Kharțûm, the capital, has been rebuilt, fine, broad roads and streets have been laid out, large, handsome buildings have been erected, and every part of the town bears witness to the existence of an effective, governing power in the land. Khartûm has been brought into direct communication with the Red Sea, through the construction of the Nile-Red Sea Railway, and by the opening of the Karêma-Abû Hamed Line the produce of Dongola Province can find its way to the sea-coast, and to every part of the Sadân. Telegraphs have been extended in all directions, postal and money-order offices have been established in nearly sixty towns, the Nile has been cleared of the Sudd, and services of steamers have been established. Old caravan roads have been cleared and new ones made, and posts have been founded and garrisons, to protect traders and prevent robbery. The survey of the country and the making of accurate maps hare gone on steadily under the direction of Col. the Hon. M. G. Talbot, R.E., and now accurate itineraries can be obtained to all the chief places in the Sûdân. The slave trade has to all intents and purposes been stamped out, and there is reason to hope that in a generation or two domestic slavery will have become a thing of the past. The natives will find

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