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1.D. him nothing, and on June 25th Mr. Lascelles, the 1879. British Consul-General, and M. Tricon, the French

Consul-General, together with Sherif Pashâ, waited upon Isma'il to inform him that he must at once abdicate in obedience to the orders of his sovereign master, the Sultân, which had been received from Constantinople. Ismâ'il of course refused to do this, but about 10.30 a.m. a telegram addressed to Ismâ'il Pâshâ, late Khedive of Egypt, was received at the Abdin Palace, and it was taken to him by Sherif Pashâ, who called upon his master to resign in favour of Tawfiș Pâsha. Almost at the same hour Tawsiķ received at the Isma'iliyya Palace

telegram addressed to Muḥammad Tawfiķ, Khedive of Egypt, and when he went to the Abdîn Palace with Sherif Pashâ, who had come from there to tell him about the telegram to Isma'il, he found his father ready to salute and to wish him better fortune than he himself-had enjoyed. On Monday, the 30th of June, Ismâ'il left Egypt in the Khedivial yacht for Smyrna, taking with him a large sum of money and about 300 women; in 1887 he settled in Constantinople, where he died in 1895. Under Tawfiķ's rule the Control was restored, and on

September 4 Ríaz Pâshâ became Prime Minister. 1880. Commission of Liquidation appointed, and a number of

reforms, including a reduction of the taxes, are made. 1881. i rebellion headed by Aḥmad Arabi or “Arabi

Pasha" and others breaks out. Arabi was born in the year 1840 in Lower Egypt, and was the son of a peasant farmer. He offended Ismâ’il, and was accused of malpractices and misappropriation of army stores, but this the despot forgave him, and promoted him to the rank of colonel, and

A.D. 1881.

gave him a royal slave to wife. Arabi was the leader of a secret society, the aim of which was to free Egypt from foreign interference and control, and to increase the army, and make Tawfik appoint an Egyptian to the office of Minister of War in the place of Osmân Rifki. These facts coming to the notice of the authorities, Arabi and two of his colleagues were ordered to be arrested, and when this had been done, and they had been taken to the barracks in Cairo for examination, the soldiers who were in their companies rushed into the rooms and rescued them. The rebel officers and men next went to the palace where Tawfiķ was, and compelled him to grant their requests, and to do away with the cause of their dissatisfaction.

BRITISH RULE IN EGYPT.

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1882. On February 2 of this year Tawfiß was called upon

to form new Cabinet, and Arabi became Minister of War, and Mahmûd Sami was appointed President of the Council ; Arabi was created a Pâshả by the Sultân and his power became paramount. In May a serious dispute arose between Arabi and his colleagues and the Khedive; and on the 19th and 20th three British and three French vessels arrived at Alexandria. On May 25th the Consuls-General of England and France demanded the resignation of Mahmud Sami's Cabinet, and the retirement of Arabi from the country.

These demands were conceded on the following day, but shortly after Tawfik reinstated Arabi, with the view of maintaining order and

A.1.

1882.

the tranquillity of the country. "On June 3 three more British and three more French warships arrived at Alexandria. On June in a serious riot broke out at Alexandria ; and the British Consul was stoned and nearly beaten to death, and Mr. Ribton, a missionary, and a British naval officer and two seamen were actually killed.” The massacre had been threatened by Mahmûd Sami, and the riot was pre-arranged, and the native police and soldiery were parties to the murders of the Europeans which took place on that day; Mr. Royle (Egyptian Campaigns, p. 54) estimates the number of Europeans killed at 150. On June 25 the Sulțân decorated Arabi with the Grand Order of the Medjidieh! On July 11 at 7 a.m. the bombardment of Alexandria was begun by H.M.S.“ Alexandra” firing a shell into the newly made fortifications of the city, and the other British ships, " Inflexible," "Superb,” “Sultan," “Téméraire," “Invincible," “Monarch," and “Penelope,” soon after opened fire. After the bombardment was over the city was plundered and set on fire by the natives, and an idea of the damage done may be gained from the fact that the Commission of Indemnities awarded the claimants the sum of £4,341,01 sterling (Royle, op. cit., p. 102). On July 14th British seamen were landed to protect the city, and on the 15th many forts were occupied by them. Early in August Arabi was removed from his post, and he at once began to prepare to resist the English soldiers who were known to be on their way to Egypt; on August 15 Sir Garnet Wolseley arrived in Egypt; on the 18th the British feet arrived at Port Sa'id ; on the 20th the British seized the

was

A. D. Suez Canal, and the British Government 1882. declared by M. de Lesseps to have paid to him

£,100,000 for loss of business! (Royle, op. cit., P. 152). On September 13 Sir Garnet Wolseley was victorious at Tell al-Kebir, at a cost of about 460 British officers and men; the Egyptians lost about 2,000, and several hundreds were wounded. On the 15th Cairo was occupied by the British, and the 10,000 Egyptian soldiers there submitted without fighting. On December 26th

Arabi left Egypt for exile in Ceylon. 1883. A rebellion led by the Mahdi breaks out in the

Súdân. The Mahdî was one Muḥammad Ahmad, a carpenter, who was born between 1840 and 1850 : bis native village was situated on an island near Arko, in the province of Donkola, and though poor, his parents declared that they belonged to the Ashraf, or "nobility," and claimed to be descendants of Muhammad the Prophet. His father was a religious teacher, and had taught him to read and write. He studied at Berber under Muhammad al-Khêr, and later at Kharțûm under the famous Shekh Muhammad Sherif, and when he became a man he led a life of great asceticism on the Island of Abba in the White Nile. His piety and learning secured for him a great reputation in the Sûdân, and the greater number of the inhabitants sided with him in a serious quarrel which he had with Muhammad Sherîf. He wandered about preaching against the Christians, and he declared that the decay in the Muḥammadan religion was due to the contact of Arabs with Christians, that true faith was dead, and that he was deputed by God to restore it. He then attached a number of important people to himself,

A.D.

1883

and having retired to Abâ, or Abba Island, he declared himself to be the “Mahdî,” or the being whose advent had been foretold by Muḥammadan writers, who would restore the religion of the Arabs to its former purity. In July, 1881, Rauf Pashi, the Governor-General of the Sûdân, sent for him to come to Kharțûm, but the Mahdî refused, and six weeks later he and his followers defeated the Government troops which had been sent to bring him, and slew half of them. In December he defeated Rashid Bey, the Governor of Fâshoda, and slew nearly all the 400 soldiers which he had with him at Geddîn. In April, 1882, Giegler Pasha, the temporary Governor-General, next attacked the Mahdî, and under his able generalship considerable loss was inflicted on the rebels ; but on June 7 the Mahdi and his Dervishes massacred the combined forces of 'Abd-Allah and Yussuf Pasha, and in September he besieged Al-Obed," which capitulated on January 17, 1883. In the same month Colonel W. Hicks, a retired Indian officer, was appointed head of the Army in the Súdân, and on February 7 he left Cairo for Kharțûm Berber, which he reached on March 1; in April he set out against the Dervishes, and on the last day of the month he defeated about 4,000 of them and killed about 500. On September 9 he set out with reinforcements for Duwêm, intending to recapture Al-Obêd, but early in November the Mahdi attacked his force of about 10,000 men with some thousands of soldiers from the old Egyptian Army, near Lake Rahad, it is said, and the gallant Englishman and his officers and men,

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