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Year of the Constantinopolitan æra of the world, 5566—Year of the Alexandrian æra of the world, 5560—Year of the

Antiochian æra of the world, 5550—Year of the Julian Period, 4768—Year of the Ussherian æra of the world, 4062— Year of the two hundred and winth Olympiad, 2-Year from the building of Rome, according to the Roman account, 811-Year of the æra of the Seleucidæ, 370-Year of the Cæsarean æra of Antioch, 106-Year of the Julian æra, 103—Year of the Spanish æra, 96-Year from the Birth of Christ, 62—Year of the vulgar æra of Christ's nativity, 58-Year of the Dionysian Period, or Easter Cycle, 59— Year of the Grecian Cycle of nineteen years, 2, or the first embolismic--Year of the Jewish Cycle of nineteen years, 18—Year of the Solar Cycle, 11-Dominical Letter A-Epact, or the Moon's age at the commencement of the year, 11-Jewish Pass-over, Saturday, March 25—Easter Sunday, March 26-Year after Bissextile, or Leap-year, 2-Year of the reign of the Emperor Nero Cæsar, 5-Year of Claudius Felix, the Jewish Governor, 6-Year of the reign of Vologesus, King of the Parthians, 9-Year of Caius Numidius Quadratus, Governor of Syria, 8-High Priest of the Jews, Joseph-Consuls, Nero Augustus the third time, and Valerius Messala.

CHAPTER I. St. Paul shews the Romans his divine call to the apostleship, and for what end he was thus called, 1–6. His salu

tation to the Church at Rome, and his commendation of their faith, 7–8 His earnest desire to see them, that he might impart to them some spiritual gifts, 9-15. His description of the Gospel of Christ, 16–17. The crimes and profligacy of the Gentile world, which called aloud for the judgments of God, 18—32.

AUL, a servant of Jesus Christ, || 2 ( Which he had promised afore A.M..C:4062. An. Olymp.

* called to be an apostle, 'separ- || " by his prophets in the A.U.C.cir.811. ated unto the gospel of God,


A.M.cir. 4062.
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holy scrip- cir. ccix. 3.

cir. CCIX.2.


• Acts 22. 21. 1 Cor. 1, 1. Gal. 1. 1. 1 Tim. 1. 11. & 2, 7. 2 Tinn. 1: 11.

Acts 9, 15. & 13. 2. Gal. 1. 15.

• See on Acts 26. 6. Tit. 1. 2.-ch. 3. 21. & 16. 26. Gal. 3. 8.


importance of the virtues and duties of the Christian life. Different Interpreters have divided this Epistle into certain The Dogmatic part is included in the first eleven chapters, parts or divisions, by which they suppose its subject and mat-the grand object of which is to shew, that eternal salvation ter may be the better understood. Some of these divisions cannot be procured by any observation of the Jewish law, have been mentioned in the preceding preface.

and can be hoped for, only on the Christian scheme; for by The Epistle contains three grand divisions.

the works of the law no man can be justified; but what the 1. The PREFACE. chap. i. 1–17.

law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God II. The TRACTATION, or setting forth of the main sub-has accomplished by sending his Son into the world, who ject, including two sections, 1. Dogmatic, or what relates to becoming an offering for sin, condemned sin in the flesh. Doctrine. 2. Parænetic, or what relates to the necessity and|| The Parænetic part commences with chap. xii. 1 I beseech

Jesus Christ is declared


to be the son of David;

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cir. CCÍX. 2.

3 Concerning his Son Jesus Christ 4 And declared to be the Son of A.M.cir.4062. An. Olymp. our Lord,

our Lord, which was made of God with power, according to the An. Olymp; A.U.C.cir.811. the seed of David according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection A.U.C.cir.811.

from the dead :


* Mat. 1. 6, 16. Luke 1. 32. Acts 2. 30. 2 Tim. 2. 8.-_John 1. 14.

Gal. 4. 4. Gr, determined. Acts 13. 33. Heb. 9. 14.

you, therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that ye pre- from ATIŞehis to send, signifies simply a messenger or en. sent your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, voy; one sent on a confidential errand : but here it means which is your reasonable service, &c. and extends to chap. an extraordinary messenger; one sent by God himself, to XV. 14.

deliver the most important message on behalf of his Maker: III. The Peroration or Epilogue, which contains the Au. in a word, one sent by the divine authority to preach the thor's apology for writing; his commendation of his aposto- Gospel to the nations. The word xayvos called, signifies lical office; his promise to visit them; his request of an here the same as constituted, and should be joined with interest in their prayers; his commendations of certain per- AT050205 as it is in the Greek, and translated thus, Paul, sons, and his salutations to others. These points are con a servant of Jesus Christ, constituted an Apostle, &c. This tained in the succeeding parts of the Epistle, from chap. sense the word called has in many places of the Sacred Writ. xv. 14. to chap. xvi. 24. The 25th, 26th, and 27th verses ! ings; e. g. Behold what manner of love the Father hath of this chapter evidently belong to another part of the bestowed on us that we should be called rarbwuev, CONSTI. Epistle, and should come in as they do in a vast majority TUTED, or made the sons of God. As it is likely that no of the best MSS. after the 23rd verse of the xiv. chapter. Apostle had been employed in founding the church of Rome,

For every thing necessary to a gencral knowledge of the and there was need of much authority to settle the matters · Epistle itself, see the preceding Preface.

that were there in dispute; it was necessary that he should The inscriptions to this Epistle are various in the differ- shew them, that he derived his authority from God; and ent MSS. and Versions. The following are the principal was immediately delegated by him to preach and write as he To the Romans— The Epistle of Paul to the RomansThe was now doing Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the RomansThe Epistle of Sepuruted unto the gospel] Set apart and appointed to this the Iloly Apostle Paul to the Romans. The word ayoos work, and to this only; as the Israelites were separate holy, we have translated saint ; and thus, instead of saying the from all the people of the earth, to be the servants of God, holy Paut, &c. we say Saint Paul, &c. and this is now brought see Levit. xx. . 26. St. Paul may here refer to his former into general use. The older the MSS. are, the more simple state as a Pharisee, which literally signifies a separatist, or the appellatives given to Apostles and Apostolic men. one separated. Before, he was separated unto the service of

his own sect; now, he is separated unto the gospel of God, NOTES ON CHAP. I.

On the word Gospel, and its meaning, see the Preface to the Verse 1. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ] The word notes on St. Matthew; and for the meaning of the word ögunos which we translate servant, properly means a slave, Pharisee, see the same Gospel, chap. iii. at the end. one who is the entire property of his master; and is used Verse 2. Which he had promised afore] Both in the law here by the Apostle with great propriety. He felt he was and in the prophets, God shewed his purpose to introduce not his own, and that his life and powers belonged to his hea- into the world a more perfect and glorious state of things : venly owner, and that he had no right to dispose of, or which state was to take place by and under the influence of employ them but in the strictest subserviency to the will of the Messiah ; who should bring life and immortality to light his Lord. In this sense, and in this spirit, he is the willing by his gospel. slave of Jesus Christ': and this is, perhaps, the highest cha Verse 3. Concerning his Son] That is, the gospel relates sacter which any soul of man can attain on this side eternity. every thing concerning the Conception, Birth, Preaching, “I am wholly the Lord's; and wholly devoted in the spirit | Miracles, Pussion, Death, Resurrection, and stscension of of sacrificial obedience to the constant, complete and ener- Jesus Christ, who was of the seed royal, being, as far as his getic performance of the Divine will.” A friend of God is humanity was considered, the Son of David; and then, the high; a son of God is higher; but the servant, or, in the only rightful heir to the Israelitish throne. above sense, the slave of God is higher than all; in a word, Verse 4. And declared to be the Son of God] See the he is a person who feels he has no property in himself, and note on Acts chap. xiii. 33. where this subject is consithat God is alt, and in all.

dered at large. The word ópicbertos, which we render de Called to b? ur. apostle] The word A7450205 Apostle, I clared, comes from opišu to bound, define, determine, or

And through him, the grace of the


apostleship is reccived.

A. 1.c. 56. 5 By whom 'we have received grace 6 Among whom are ye also the call- A.M.cir.1062.
An. Olymp; and apostleship, for obedience to ed of Jesus Christ :
A.U.C.cir.811. the faith among all nations, "for 7 To all that be in Rome, beloved A.U.C.cir.811.
his name:

of God, called to be saints: 'Grace to you, and

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limit, and hence our word horizon, the line that determines

Verse 5. Grace and apostleship] The peculiar influence, the farthest visible part of the earth, in reference to the and the essential qualifications which such an office requires :-heavens. In this place, the word signifies such a manifest without the GRACE, favour, and peculiar help of God, he and complete exhibition of the subject, as to render it indu- || could not have been an Apostle : he had an extraordinary bilable. The resurrection of Christ from the dead, was such conversion ; and an extraordinary call to preach the Gospel. a manifest proof of our Lord's innocence, the truth of his Probably yapıy xaAtessary grace and apostleship, mean the doctrine, and the fulfilment of all that the Prophets had spok- same as xapie tus A705627,5, the apostolical office; for so the en, as to leave no doubt on any considerate aud candid word xmeis means in chap. xii. 3. xv. 15. 1 Cor. iii. 10. mind.

Eph. iii. 8. See the various acceptations of the word grace, With power] Ev durajel, with a miraculous display of di-on verse 7. vine energy ; for, how could his body be raised again, but by For obedience to the faith] That by this office, which I the miraculous energy of God? Some apply the word here have received from God, and the power by which it is accomto the proof of Christ's Sonship; as if it were said, that he 'panied, I might proclaim the faith, the Gospel of Jesus; and was most manifestly declared to be the Son of God, with shew all nations the necessity of believing in it, in order to such powerful evidence and argument, as to render the truth their salvation. Ilere is, first, the Gospel of the Son of irresistible.

God-2. An Apostle divinely commissioned and empowered According to the spirit of holiness] There are many differ- to preach it-3. The necessity of faith in the name of Jesus, ences of sentiment relative to the meaning of this phrase in as the only Saviour of the world—4. Of obedience, as the this place; some supposing, that the spirit of holiness implies necessary consequence of genuine faith-and, 5. This is to the divine ndure of Jesus Christ; others his immaculate be proclaimed among all nations; that all might have the sanctity, &c. To me it seems that the apostle simply means opportunity of believing and being saved. that the person called Jesus, lately crucified at Jerusalem, Verse 6. Ye are the calleil] Ye Romans are all invited and in whose name salvation was preached to the world, was to believe in Christ Jesus, for the salvation of your souls : the Son of God, the very Messiah promised before in the and to you, with the rest, my apostolical mission extends. Holy Scriptures; and that he was this Messiah, was amply | This appears to be the most obvious sense of the word called demonstrated. 1st, By his resurrection from the dead, the in this place to be called by the Gospel, is to be invited to irrefragable proof of his purity, innocence, and the divine believe in Christ Jesus, and become his disciples. The word approbation ; for, had he been a malefactor as the Jews pre- sometimes means constituted, or made, as in verse 1. tended, the miraculous power of God would not have been Verse 7. Called to be saints] Invited to become holy exerted in raising his body from the dead. 2nd, He was persons, by believing the gospel, and receiving the gifts of the proved to be the Son of God, the promised Messiah, by the Holy Ghost. Or here the word may have the meaning of Holy Spirit, (called here the Spirit of holiness, which he sent made or constituted as above; x47015 ayons, to all that be in down upon his apostles, and not on them only, but on all Rome, constituted Saints, for they had already received that believed on his name; by whose influence multitudes the gospel grace; and were formed into a Christian church. were convinced of sin, righteousness, and judgment, and mul. Grace to you] Xapis vui, may you be partakers of the titudes sanctified unto God; and it was by the peculiar unc Divine favour, the source whence every blessing is derived. tion of this Spirit of holiness, that the apostles gave witness I think it necessary, once for all, to give the several acof the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, Acts iv. 33. Thus ceptations of this word grace, which occur in the Sacred then, Christ was proved to be the true Messiah, the son of Writings. David, according to the flesh, having the sole right to the 1. The word xaçis signifies in general favour, or benethrone of Israel; and God recognized this character, and volence, but especially that favour which is powerful and this right, by his resurrection from the dead, and sending forth active, and loads its object with benefits. Luke i. 30, Fear the various gifts and graces of the Spirit of holiness in his not, Mary, thou hast found FAVOUR, xapiv, with God. Luke name.

ii. 40, And the child grew-and the GRACE of God, zapis

The Apostle's salutation to the


Church of Christ at Rome.

A.1.01196. peace from God our Father, and the Jesus Christ for you all, that your A. 1. cir.1962 An. Olynp. Lord Jesus Christ.

faith is spoken of throughout the Anc olymp; 8 First, “I thank my God through whole world.

cir. CCİX. 2. A.U.C.cir.811.


a 1 Cor. 1. 4. Phil. 1.3. Col. 1. 3, 4. 1 Thes. 1. 2. Philem. 4.

Ch. 16. 19. 1 Thes. 1. 8.


sou, the favour of God was upon him. Ib. v. 52, And which he has received through it. i Pet. v. 12, This is the Jesus encreased in FAVOUR, xapiti, GRACE, with God and true GRACE of God wherein ye stand. The Christian religion

Acts ii. 47, Having FAVOUR, zapov GRACE, with all which ye have received, is the genuine religion of God. the people. Acts iv. 33, And great GRACE, zapis, FAVOUR 4. It signifies all the blessings and benefits which Christ was upon

them all. The Apostles were at that time in uni- has purchased ; and which he gives to true believers, both in versal favour with the multitude. In this sense the word time and eternity. See Rom. v. 15 and 17. where the grace occurs in a great variety of places, both in the Old and New | of God is opposed to death; i. e. to all the wretchedness and Testaments.

misery brought into the world by Adam's transgression. 2. Hence it is often used for the blessing which it dis- | 1 Cor. xvi. 23, The GRACE of the Lord Jesus Christ be with penses ; for if God be favourably disposed towards a person, you all : may every blessing purchased by Christ's passion his beneficent acts in that person's behalf, will be a necessary || and death be the portion of you all. Gal. v. 4, Ye are consequence of such favour. John i. 14, Full of GRACE und fallen from GRACE-ye have lost the blessings of the Gostruth; accomplished in all spiritual blessings. Ib. v. 16, pel by submitting to circumcision. And GRACE upon GRACE: he who is full of the most excel

5. It signifies the apostolic and ministerial office ; or the lent blessings, confers them liberally on all believers. Acts authority to propagate the Christian religion ; and the unction xi. 23, When he had seen the Grace of God, i. e. he had the or influence by which that office is executed: so in the 5th fullest evidence that they were richly endowed with heavenly verse of this chapter, as has been already noted-By whom gifts. 1 Cor. i. 4, For the grace of God which is given you, we have received GRACE and apostleship, or, the apostolic ofthe Divine blessings conferred upon you. 2 Cor. ix. 8, God fice. Rom. xii. 3, I say, through the GRACE given unto me: is able to make all GRACE abounil towards you; i. enrich you i.e. I command you by the authority of my apostolic office, with every benediction. This also is a very common accept- || &c. See also verse 6. ation of the word; and in this sense the word grace, or 6. It signifies a gift, salary, or money collected for the use favour, is now generally understood among religious people. of the poor. 1 Cor. xvi. 3, Whomsoever ye shall approveThe grace of God meaning with them some divine or spiri- them will I send to bring your LIBERALITY, TYY xapiv upewny tual blessing communicated.

your GRACE-i. e. the collection made for the poor saints: 3. It is sometimes taken for the whole of the Christian see ver. 1. 2 Cor. viii. 4, Praying usthat we would reReligion, as being the grandest possible display of God's ceive the gift, try masiv, the GRACE, the contribution made favour, to a lost, ruined world : and in this sense it appears in the churches of Macedonia, for the relief of the poor. In to be used. John i. 17, For the Law was given by Moses ; l this sense it is used in Ecclus. xvii. 22, He will keep the but GRACE and truth came by Jesus Christ : where the term G00D DEEDs of man, χαριν, the same as ελεημοσύνη, alms, GRACE is evidently opposed to Law; the latter meaning the in the beginning of the verse, and it signifies a kind or Mosaic, the other the Christian, dispensation. Acts xiii. 43, friendly act, in the same author. Chap. xxix. 15, Forget Barnabas persuaded them to continue in the grace of God- not the FRIENDSHIP, xapitas, of thy surety. GRACE, or i. e. to hold fast their profession of the religion of Christ. ll xapis, was a deity among the ancients; and the three graRom. vi. 14, Ye are not under the law, but under GRACE : CES, đi TPERS XQ pites, were called Pitho, Aglaia, and Euye are no longer under obligation to fulfil the Mosaic pre-phrosyne : IIasfw, mild persuasion ; Ayacık, dignity ; Evępocepts; but are under the Christian dispensation.-See also ourn, liberality and joyfulness ; and these were always painted verse 15. of the same chap. and see 2 Cor.i. 10. vi. 1. Gal.i. 6. I naked, to shew that all benefits should be gratuitous, this Coloss. i. 6. 2 Tim. ii. 1. Tit. ii. 11, The Grace of God, being essential to the nature of a gift. See Suidas, in that bringeth salvation to all men, hath appeared. The Jewish xasitas. religion was restricted in its benefits to a few; but the Chris 7. It sometimes signifies merely thanks or thanksgiving:tian religion proposes the salvation of all men ; and the See Luke xvii. 9, Doth he THANK, un xapin e xes, that ser. Author of it has become a sacrifice for the sins of the whole li vant ? Rom. vi. 17, But God be THANKED, xapis de tw Osw. world. Heb. xii. 15, Looking diligently lest any man fall 1 Cor. x. 30, For if I by GRACE, Xupiti, THANKSGIVING, from the GRACE of God; lest any man apostatize from the as our margin has it, and properly. Christian religion, and the blessings of pardon and holiness 8. It siguifies remuneration, wages, or reward. Luke vie

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He testifies his warm


affection for them. 9 For God is my witness, whom | make mention of you always in my 4. D. cir.58.

An. Olymp. An. Olymp; I serve with my spirit in the gospel prayers ; A.U.C.cir.811. of his Son, that " without ceasing I 10 € Making request,

if by any

cir. CCİX: 2. A.U.C. cir.811.


* Ch. 9. 1. 2 Cor. 1. 23. Phil. 1. 8. 1 Thes. 2. 5.- Acts 27. 23. Or, in my spirit. John 4.23, 24. Phil. 3. 3.1 Thes. 3. 10.2 Tim. 1. 3.

15. 23, 32. 1 Thes. 3. 10.


32, 33, and 34, If ye love them that love youdo good to implying reconciliation and friendship; and to the etymology them which do good to youlend to them of rchom ye hope of the word the Apostle seems to allude in Eph. iv. 3, Ento receive, what THANK have ye? TOKA Uploy xapos 55, what || leavouring to keep the unity of the Spirit, in the bond of REWARD have ye? This appears, from the parallel place,

Acts xii. 20, They of Tyre and Sidon, desired Matt. v. 46, to be most evidently the meaning : The worsor | PEACE; they sought reconciliation with Herod, by means of SYETE ; what REWARD have ye? The word is used in this Blastus, the king's chamberlain. sense by several Greek writers.

2. It signifies regularity, good order. 1 Cor. xiv. 33, God 9. It signifies whatever is the means of procuring the is not the God of confusion, but of PEACE. favour or kindness of another. 1 Pet. ii. 19, 20, For this 3. It signifies, the labour or study of preserving peace and is TUANKwortuY, TOUTO 79.9 gadis maca Dell, this is the concord; and this is supposed to be its meaning, Matt. x. 34. means of PROCURING FAVOU'R from God.

Luke xii. 51. and Acts vii. 26. Rom. xiv. 17, For the king10. It signifies joy, pleasure, and gratification, which isdom of God is-righteousness and peace. The Christian disthe meaning of waçã, and with which it is often confounded |pensation admits of no contention, but inculcates peace. in the New Testament. Philemon 7, For we have great | 1 Cor. vii. 15, God hath called us to PEACE-to labour to Joy, x2ply yap sxQuey Todany. Tobit vii. 18, The Lord | preserve quietness and concord. Heb. xii. 14, Follow PEACE give thee Joy, xapiy, for this thy sorrow. In this sense the l-labour to preserve it. word is used by the best Greek writers; and in this sense it 4. It signifies the author or procurer of peace and concord. appears to be used, 2 Cor. i. 15.

Eph. ii. 14, He is our PEACE—the author of concord be11. It signifies the performance of an act which is pleasing twixt Jews and Gentiles. or grateful to others. Acts xxiv. 27, Felir, willing to shew 5. It signifies the Gospel and its blessings. Eph. ii. 17, the Jeas a PLEASURE, χαριτας καταθεσθαι, to perform an And came and preached PEACE to you which were afar off ; act which he knew would be highly gratifying to them.

and to them that were nigh. 12. It signifies whatever has the power or influence to pro

6. It signifies all kinds of mental and corporeal happiness; cure favour, &c. Suavity, kindness, benevolence, gentle de- and especially the happiness of Christians. Luke i. 79, To meanour. Luke iv. 22, All wondered at the Gracious worıls | guide our feet into the way of PEACE; to shew us the way to Os doyou this yapıtos, the benevolent, kind, and tender erpres. || obtain true happiness. Luke xix. 42, The things which besions ; such as his text ver. 18. would naturally lead him to long unto thy PEACE—that, by which thou mightest have been speak—He hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; made truly happy. i Thess. v. 23, The very God of PEACE he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach deli- ||--God, the only source of true felicity. John xvi. 33, rerance to the captites, &c. Eph. iv. 29. Col. iv. 6, Let || These things have I spoken unto you that in me ye might have your speech be always with GRACE: i. e. gracious, kind, bene- PE.ACE--that ye might have confidence and happiness in be. volent, savouring of the doctrine of Christ : it is thus used by | lieving on me as your only Saviour. several Greek writers. See Schleusner. As the word

As the word x26is,

7. It signifies good wishes and affectionate prayers. Matt. GRACE, most frequently signifies some blessing or benefit, | x. 13, And if the house be worthy, let your PEACE come calculated to promote human happiness ; it is generally de- || upon it. Our Lord commands his disciples, ver. 12. to rived from xaifw, I rejoice, because of the effect produced salute the house into which they entered; and this was done by the blessing.

by saying peace be unto this house! that is, let every blessing, And Peace] Espion, the same as dobu shalom in Hebrew, spiritual and temporal, be the portion of this family. See generally signifying all kinds of blessing, but especially hur-Luke x. 6. John xiv. 27. and Acts xv. 33. they were let go mony and unity—and the bond of such unity. The most probable in PEACE ; they had the most fervent and affectionate prayers derivation of the worlaipgun is from eipw I bind, and zvone -be. ll of the church. cause peace unites and binds those who were, by discord, before 8. It signifies Praise. Luke xix. 38, Peace in Heuven, disunited. In the New Testament it signifies—1. Peace, and glory in the Highest. May all the heavenly host praise public or private, in the general acceptation of the word, as God, and give bim the highest honour!

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