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All have sinned, and come


short of the glory of God.

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A. D. cir. 58.

An. Olymp: cir. CCİX: 2.

21 But now the righteousness of 23 For all have sinned, and come A. M. cir. 4062. An. Olymp., God without the law is manifested, || short of the glory of God; A.U.C.cir.811. being witnessed by the law and the 21 Being justified freely

justified freely 5 by his A.U.C.cir.bli. prophets;

grace, "through the redemption that is in Christ 22 Even the righteousness of God which is Jesus : d by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all 25 Whom God hath 'set forth * to be a prothem that believe : e for there is no difference: pitiation, through faith 'in his blood, to declare

a Acts 15. 11. ch. 1. 17. Phil. 3. 9. Hebr. 11. 4, &c.-- John 5. 46. Acts 26. 22.-ech. 1. 2. 1 Pet. 1. 10.-_ chap. 4. throughout.. ch. 10. 12. Gal. 3. 28. Col. 3. 11. ver. 9. ch. ll. 32. Gal. 3. 22.

& Ch. 4. 16. _Ephes. 2. 8 Tit. 3. 5, 7. h Matt. 20. 28. Ephes. 1.7. Col. 1. 14. 1 Tim. 2. 6. Hebr. 9. 12. 1 Pet. 1. 18, 19. - Or, fore-ordained.- Lev. 16. 15. 1 John 2. 2. & 4. 10. - Col. 1. 20.

straightness or crookedness of a line can be determined; so, the redemption, OTOÀUTpwois, the ransom price, which is in the moral obliquity of human actions can only be deter- | the sacrifice of Christ Jesus. The original is compounded of mined by the law of God; that rule of right which proceedsato, from; and autpow, I redeem; and properly means the from his own immaculate holiness.

price laid down for the reilemption of a captive. CompreVerse 21. But now the righteousness of God] God's hendit hæc Christi, ATOAUTOwois, quicquid is docuit, fecit et method of saving sinners, is now shewn by the gospel, to be passus est, eo concilio, ut homines malis liberati, præcipuè through his own mere mercy, by Christ Jesus ; without the peccato, malorum fonte immunes, veram felicitatem adipiscerlaw, without any right or claim which might result from entur.—Rosenmüller. This redemption of Christ compreobedience to the law; and is evidently that which was in-hends whatsoever he taught, did, or suffered, in order to free tended by God from the beginning; for it is witnessed by the men from evil; especially to free them from sin, the source law and the prophets; the rites and ceremonies of the one, of evils; that they might attain true felicity. And that it and the preachings and predictions of the others, all bearing here means the liberation purchased by the blood-shedding testimony to the great design of God; and to the absolute of Christ, is evident from Eph. i. 7, We have REDEMPTION, necessity there was for the sacrifice and salvation which God a TOAUTOwoiy dia tou odpaTOS AUTOU, THROUGH HIS BLOOD, has provided.

the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his Verse 22. Even the righteousness of God] That method grace. See also Coloss. i. 14. where the same words are of saving sinners, which is not of works, but by faith in found. Christ Jesus; and is not restrained to any particular people, as Λυτρα according to Suidas, is μισθος, η τα παρεχομενα the law and its privileges were; but is unto all mankind in υπερ ελευθεριας, επι τω λυτρωσασθαι βαρβαρων δουλειας: Α its intention and offer; and becomes effectual to them that reward; or the price given to be redeemed from the slavery believe: for God hath now made no difference between the of the barbarians. Schleusner, under the word ATOXUtswois, Jews and the Gentiles.

says, Negari quidem non potest, hanc vocem propriè notare Verse 23. For all have sinned! And consequently are redemptionem ejus, qui captivus detinetur, sive bello, sive equally helpless and guilty: and, as God is no respecter of alio captus sit modo, quæ fit per pretii solutionem; quo sensu persons, all human creatures, being equally his offspring, verbum, a TOZUT Cow, legitur haud raro in Scripp. Græcis. and there being no reason why one should be preferred be. No man certainly can deny that this word properly means fore another; therefore, his endless mercy has embraced all the redemption of a captive, (whether he may have been taken

And come short of the glory of God.] Kai U5ECOUVTA. ims in war or in any other way,) which is procured by the payment 30505 TOU Oscu• These words have been variously translated ; | of a price. That the word also means any deliverance, even fuiled of attaining the glory of God: Have not been able to where no price is paid down, no body will dispute: but that bring glory to Goil: stand in need of the glory, (that is,) the it means redemption by a price laid down ; and the redempmercy of God. The simple meaning seems to be this ; that, tion of the soul by the price of the death of Christ, the above as all have sinned, and none can enjoy God's glory, but they scriptures sufficiently prove. that are holy; consequently, both Jews and Gentiles, have Verse 25. Whom God huth set forth] Appointed and failed in their endeavours to attain it; as, by the works of published ; to be a propitiation, Ihasaplov, the mercy-seat, any laro, no human being can be justified.

or place of atonement ; because the blood of the sacrifice Verse 24. Being justified freely by his grace] So far from was sprinkled on and before that, in order to obtain remis. being able to attain the glory of God by their obedience, they sion of sin, punishment, &c. The mercy-seat was the lid, or are all guilty ; ånd, to be saved, must be freely pardoned by cover of the ark of the covenant, where God was manifest in God's grace; which is shewn to them who believe, through the symbol of his presence, between the cherubim ; therefore

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Both Jews and Gentiles


are to be justified by faith.

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A.M.Cir. 106. his righteousness for the remis- cluded. a for the remis- cluded. By what law ? of works ? 4.M.Sır.1062

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Au. Olymap. An. COMP;. sion of 'sins that are past, through Nay, but by the law of faith. A.U.C.cir.811. the forbearance of God;

28 Therefore we conclude

that a

A.U.C.cir.811. 26 To declare,

declare, I say, at this time his man is justified by faith, without the deeds of righteousness : that he might be just, and the law. the justifier of

of him which believeth in 29 Is he the God of the Jews only? is he Jesus.

not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gen27 - Where is boasting then ? It is ex- | tiles also :

Le Acts 13.38, 39.

* Acts 13. 38, 39. 1 Tim. 1. 15.- Or, passing over.- Acts 17. 30.

Hebr. 9. 15.

d Ch. 2. 17, 23. & 4. 2. 1 Cor. 1. 29, 31. Ephes. 2.9.

ver. 20, 21, 22. ch. 8. 3. 'Gal. 2. 16.

the atonement that was made in this place, was properly made own? Nothing accruing to us from our circumcision, and to God himself. See the note op Luke xviii. 13.

being in covenant with God? Through faith in his blood This shews rchut we are to APOSTLE-It is excluded] EXEXXE1GBY, It is shut out; understand both by the AtoautpWais, redemption, and the the door of heaven is shut against every thing of this kind. Inasoplov, propitialion ; viz. that they refer to the sacrificial Jew-By what law.] By what rule, doctrine, or reason death of Jesus Christ, as the atonement made, and the is it shut out? by the law of works? The rule of obedience price paid down for the redemption of the souls of men. which God gave to us; and by which obedience we are ac

To declare his righteousness] Eis Evden Ev, for the mapi- || cepted by him? festation of his righteousness; his mercy in saving sinners, APOSTLE,Nay] Not by the law of works; glorying is by sending Jesus Christ to make an atonement for them ; || not cut off, or shut out by that; it stands in full force as the thereby declaring his readiness to remit all past transgressions rule of life; but you have sinned, and need pardon. The committed both by Jews and Gentiles, during the time in law of works grants no parılon, it requires obedience, and which his merciful forbearance was exercised towards the threatens the disobedient with death. But all glorying in world; and this applies to all who hear the gospel now : to the expectation of salvation, through your own obedience, is them is freely offered, remission of all past sins.

excluded by the law, the doctrine of faith : faithi alone, in Verse 26. To declare, I say, at this time] To manifest the mercy of God, through the propitiation made by the blood now, by the dispensation of the gospel, his righteousness, his of Jesus, (ver. 25.) is that, by which you can be justified, infinite mercy ; and to manifest it in such a way, that he || pardoned and taken into the Divine favour. might still appear to be the just God, and yet the justifier, Verse 28. Therefore we conclude, &c.] Seeing these the pardoner of him who believeth in Jesus. llere we learn, I things cannot be denied, viz. that all have sinned ; that all that God designed to give the most evident displays, both of are guilty ; that all are helpless ; that none can deliver his his justice and mercy. Of his justice in requiring a sacrifice; || own soul; and that God, in his endless mercy, has opened and absolutely refusing to give salvation to a lost world in a new and living way to the holiest by the blood of Jesus, any other way; and of his mercy, in providing the sacrifice Heb. x. 19, 20, &c. therefore we, apostles and Christian which his justice required. Thus, because Jesus was an teachers, conclude doyiseuela, prove by fair, rational conatonement, a ransom price for the sin of the world, therefore sequence, that a man, any man, is justified, has his sins God can, consistently with his justice, pardon every soul that blotted out, and is received into the Divine favour, by faith believeth in Jesus. This is the full discovery of God's || in Christ's blood, without the deeds of the law, which never righteousness, of his wonderful method of magnifying his could afford, either to Jezo or Gentile, a ground for justisilaw, and making it honourable ; of shewing the infinite cation ; because both have sinned against the law which purity of his justice, and of saving a lost world.

God has given them; and, consequently, forfeited all right Hitherto, from the 9th verse, the apostle had gone on without and title to the blessings wlrich the obedient might claim. interruption ; proving that Jew and Gentile were in a state of Verse 29. Is he the God of the Jews only?]

Do not guilt and condemnation; and that they could be saved only begin to suppose that because you cannot be justified by the by the redemption that is in Christ Jesus. The Jew, find works of the law, and God has in his mercy found out a new ing bis boasted privileges all at stake, interrupts him, and asks: method of saving you ; that therefore this mercy shall apply

Verse 27. JEWWhere is bousting then?] H xaux noisy | to the Jews exclusively. Is not God the maker, preserver, this glorying of ours. Have we nothing in which we can and redeemer, ulso of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles trust for our acceptance with God? No merit of our || also, as much as of the Jeres; for all have equally sinped :

Justification by faith


does not make void the law.

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30 Seeing it is one God, which 31 Do we then make void the law A.M. cir. 1062. An Olymp; shall justify the circumcision by faith, through faith? God forbid: yea, we

An.Olymp: A.U.C.cir.811. and uncircumcision through faith. establish the law.

cir. CCIX.2. A.U.C.cir.811.

1 Ch. 10. 12, 13. Gal. 3. 8, 20, 28.

» Matt. 5. 17, 18. Gal. 3. 19, 23, 21.

and there is no reason, if God be disposed to shew mercy at | death of Christ should be considered as a price paid down for all, that he should prefer the one to the other; since they are the salvation of men : and, I confess, I cannot understaırd all equally guilty, sinful, and necessitous.

the apostle in any other

way. Nor can I see the weight of Verse 30. Seeing it is one God] ETTEITSO ÉIS ó OE95, this many of his observations, nor the force of his conclusions has been rendered seeing God is one. It however makes on any other ground than this, that the passion and death of little difference in the sense : the apostle's meaning most Christ were an atonenient made to Divine justice, in the beevidently is, it is one and the same God who made both Jews half of man; and that it is through the merit of that great and Gentiles, who shall justify, pardon the circumcision, the sacrifice, that God forgives sin. Nor can I see any reason believing Jeres, by faith ; and the uncircumcision, the believ- || why such great stress should be laid on faith, but as that lays ing Gentiles by the same faith ; as there is but one Saviour, || hold on, and takes up, the sacrifice of Christ as a ransom and one atonement provided for the whole.

price for the redemption of the soul from the thraldom and It is fanciful to suppose that the apostle has one meaning | misery of sin and Satan. when he says, Ex T15EWS, BY faith ; and a different meaning, 2. This chapter contains a fine and striking synopsis of the when he says dix T75 T15EWS, THROUGH faith. Both the pre whole Christian system. The wretched state of man is positions are to be understood in precisely the same sense ; || awfully exhibited, from the 10th to the 18th verse ; and the only the addition of the article 79,5, in the last case extends, | plan of salvation, in the 21th, 25th, and 26th verses. A pious and more pointedly ascertains, the meaning. It is one and writer calls these The Catechism of Christian Righteousness. the same God who shall justify the believing Jews by faith ; || The following points in this catechism are worthy of high and the believing Gentiles dia TYS T158W5, by THAT SAME faith. consideration--viz. How is God glorified in us, and we in

Verse 31. Do te then make void the law through faith?] him ?-By his GRACE. What does his grace work in us?— 1. By law here we may understand the whole of the Mosaic | True holiness. Upon what motive ? — Because it is pleasing law, in its rites and ceremonies ; of which, Jesus Christ was to him. By whom does he give us salvation 2-By Jesus the subject and the end. All that law had respect to him; Christ. How has Christ obtained this for us ?—By redeemand the doctrine of faith in Christ Jesus, which the Christian | ing us. What price did he give?—His BLOOD. What does religion proclaimed, established the very claims and demands his blood effect ?—It reconciles us to God. How is it apof that law; by shewing that all was accomplished in the plied 2-By Faith. Who has given this victim of reconciliapassion and death of Christ; for, without shediling of blood, | tion?—God the Father. Why did he chuse these means?—To the law would allow of no remission; and Jesus confound the false righteousness of the Gentiles; to abolish that Lamb of God, which was slain from the foundation of the FIGURATIV E righteousness of the Jews; and to establish the world ; in whose blood we have redemption, even the re

What does this grace of God perform ?-It par. mission of sins. 2. We may understand also, the moral law, dons sin; and purifies the heart.

For whom is this des that which relates to the regulation of the manners or con signed ?--For all mankind, both Jews and Gentiles. To duct of men.

This law also was established by the doctrine | rohom are these blessings actually communicated ?—To all of salvation by faith ; because this faith works by love, and who repent, turn from their sin, and believe on the Lord love is the principle of obedience : and whosoever receives | Jesus. Why did not God muke known this grand method of salvation through faith in Christ, receives power to live in salvation sooner 2-1. To make it the more valued : 2. to holy obedience to every moral precept: for, such are God's || shew his fidelity in the performance of his promises: and workmanship, created anew in Christ Jesus, unto good || 3. to make known the virtue and efficacy of the blood of works; in which they find it their duty and their interest, || Christ, which sanctifies the present, extends its influence to incessantly, to live.

the past, and continues the availing sacrifice, and way of

salvation, to all future ages. 1. In the notes on the preceding chapter, I have, in 3. On considering this glorious scheme of salvation, there general, followed the plan of Dr. Taylor, and especially in || is great danger; lest, while we stand amazed at what was regard to its dialogue form; but I have often differed much done for us, we neglect what must be done in us. Guilt from that very learned and judicious man, in the application in the conscience, and sin in the heart, ruin the man. Parof many words and doctrines.

He cannot allow that the li don in the conscience, and Christ in the heart, save the soul.


his own.

Abraharn was not justified


by works, but by faith.

Christ has done much to save us; and the way of salvation there is no necessity for our obedience to his righteous comis made plain: but unless he justify our conscience from dead mandments. If this were so, the grace of Christ would tend works, and purify our hearts from all sin, his passion and to the destruction of the law; and not to its establishment. death will profit us nothing. While we boast in Christ He only is saved from his sins who has the law of God writJesus, let us see that our rejoicing, xa5X7,015, our bousting ; ten in his heart; and he alone has the law written in his be this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity and heart who lives an innocent, holy, and useful life. Wherever godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of Christ lives, he works : and his work of righteousness will God, we have our conversation in the world, 2 Cor. i. 12. appear to his servants; and its effect will be quietness and

4. We must beware of Antinomianism : that is, of sup assurance for ever. The life of God, in the soul of man, is: posing that, because Christ has been obedient unto death, | the principle which sares and preserves eternally.

CIIAPTER IV. Abraham was justified by faith, and not by the works of the law; for his faith was impuled to him for righteous

ness, 1–5. David also bears testimony to the same doctrine, 6–8. Abraham, the father of the Jewish race, was justified by faith, even before he was circumcised; therefore salvation must be of the Gentiles as well as the Jews, 9–12. And the promise that all the nations of the earth should be blessed in him, was made to him while he was in an uncircumcised state ; and therefore, if salvation were of the Jews alone, the law that was giten after the promise, would make the promise of no effect, 13—17. Description of Abraham's faith, and its effects, 18–22. This account is left on record for our salvation, that we might believe on Christ, who was delivered for our offences, and raised again for our justification, 23—25. HAT shall we then say that || 2 For, if Abraham were justified A.M.01.1962

. * Abraham, our father as per-| by works, he hath whereof to glory; An.cClymp; A.U.C.cir.811. taining to the flesh, hath found ?

but not before God.

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* Isai. 51. 2. Matt. 3. 9. John 8.33, 59. 2 Cor. 11. 22.

5 Ch. 3. 20, 27, 28.


a part in the blessings of God's covenant. Why then should The apostle having proved in the foregoing chapter, that the Jews oppose the Gentiles ? especially as the Gentiles neither Jews nor Gentiles have a right to the blessings of were actually included in the covenant made with Abraham; God's peculiar kingdom, otherwise than by grace, which is for the promise, Gen. xvii. 4. stated, that should be the as free for the one as the other; in this chapter advances father of many nations ; consequently, the covenant being a new argument, to convince the Jew, and to shew the be made with Abraham, as the head, or father of many nations, liering Gentile, in a clear light, the high value, and strong all, in any nation who stood on the same religious principle security, of the mercies freely bestowed on them in the gos with him, were his seed, and with him interested in the same pel: and at the same time, to display the scheme of Divine covenant. But Abraham stood by faith in the mercy of Providence, as laid in the counsel and will of God. His God, pardoning his idolatry; and upon this foot the believ. argument is taken from Abraham's case: Abraham was ing Gentiles stand in the gospel ; and therefore they are the father and head of the Jewish nation : he had been an the seed of Abraham, and included in the covenant and pro. idolater, but God pardoned him, and took him and his pos- mise made to him. terity into his special covenant; and bestowed upon them To all this the apostle knew well it would be objected; many extraordinary blessings above the rest of mankind : that it was not suith alone that gave Abraham a right to the and it is evident, that Abraham was not justified by any blessings of the covenant, but his obedience to the law of cir. obedience to law, or rule of right action, but in the only way cumcision ; and this being peculiar to the Jewish nation, gave in which a sinner can be justified, by prerogative, or the them an interest in the Abrahamic covenant; and that, mercy of the luw-giver. Now, this is the very same way in consequently, whoever among the Gentiles would be interwhich the gospel saves the believing Gentiles, and gives them // ested in that covenant, ought to einbrace Juduism, become

The justification of Abraham


by faith, proved from Scripture.

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3 For, what' saith the scripture? | ward not reckoned of grace, but of A.Micro

a Abraham believed God, and it was debt A.U.C.cir.Bii. counted unto him for righteousness. 5 But to him that worketh not, A.U.C.cir.811. 4 Now bto him that worketh is the re- but believeth on him that justifieth 'the un

An. Olymp: cir, CCIX, 2.

a Gen. 15. 6. Gal. 3. 6. Jam. 2. 23.

• Ch. 11.6.- Josh. 24. 2.

circumcised, and thus come under obligation to the whole law. 1 xqua, to exult in something which he has done to entiWith this very objection the apostle very dextrously intro- tle him to these blessings. Now, it is evident that he has duces his argument, ver. 1, 2. Shews that, according to the this glorying, and consequently that he was justified by Scripture account, Abraham was justified by faith, ver. 3-5. works. explains the nature of that justification, by a quotation out of APOSTLE- But not before God] These seem to be the the Psalms, ver. 6–9. proves that Abraham was justified | apostle's words, and contain the beginning of his answer to long before he was circumcised, ver. I 11. that the believ- | the arguments of the Jew: as if he had said — Allowing that ing Gentiles are his seed to whom the promise belongs, as Abraham might glory in being called from heathenish darkwell as the believing Jews, ver. 12—17. and he describes ness into such marvellous light; and exelt in the privileges Abraham's faith, in order to explain the faith of the gospel, which God had granted to him. Yet this glorying was not ver. 17–25. See Dr. Taylor's notes. We may still sup- before God, as a reason why those privileges should be pose that the dialogue is carried on between the Apostle and granted ; the glorying itself being a consequence of these the Jew; and it will make the subject still more clear to as very privileges. sign to each his respective part. The Jew asks a single Verse 3. For, what saith the Scripture'] The scriptural question, which is contained in the 1st, and part of the account of this transaction, Gen. xv. 6. is decisive; for, 2nd verses. And the apostle's answer takes up the rest of there it is said, Abraham believed God, and it was counted, the chapter., it was reckoned to him for righteousness; EIS

dixaicouvy, for justification. Verse 1. Jew-What shull we then say that Abraham,

Verse 4. Now to him that worketh is the reward not our father, as pertaining to the flesh, hath found?] The reckoned of grace, but of debt.] Therefore, if Abraham had vata capxa, pertaining to the flesh, must here refer to the been justified by works, the blessings he received would have sign in Abraham's flesh, viz. his circumcision ; on which the been given to him as a reward for those works; and conJew would found his right to peculiar blessings. That this sequently his believing could have had no part in his justifiis the meaning of rata capra, according to the flesh, Dr. cution; and his faith would have been useless. Taylor has proved by a collation of several parallel Scrip

Verse 5. But to him that worketh not] Which was the tures, which it is not necessary to produce here. We may, case with Abraham, for he was called when he was ungodly, therefore, suppose the Jew arguing thus : but you set your i.e. an idoluter; and, on his believing, was freely justiargument on a wrong footing, viz. the corrupt state of our fied : and, as all men have sinned, none can be justified by nation; whereas we hold our prerogative above the rest of works; and therefore, justification, if it take place at all, mankind, from Abraham, who is our father ; and we have a must take place in behalf of the ungodly, forasmuch as all right to the blessings of God's peculiar kingdom, in virtue of mankind are such. Now, as Abraham's state and mode, in the promise made to him : his justification is the ground of which he was justified, are the plan and rule according to

Now what shall we make of his case, on your prin- which God purposes to save men ; and as his state was unciples? Of what use was his obedience to the law of cir- godly, and the mode of his justification was by faith in the cumcision, if it did not give him a right to the blessing of goodness and mercy of God; and this is precisely the state God? And if, by his obedience to that luw, he obtained a of Jews and Gentiles at present: there can be no other grant of extraordinary blessings, then, according to your own mode of justification than by faith in that Christ who is concession, chap. iii. 27. he might ascribe his justification to Abraham's seed ; and in whom, according to the promise, all something in himself; and, consequently, so may we too, in the nations of the earth are to be blessed. his right : and if so, this will exclude all those who are not It is necessary to observe here, in order to prevent concircumcised as we are.

fusion and misapprehension, that although the verb doxicw, Verse 2. For, if Abraham were justified by roorks] The has a variety of senses in the New Testament, yet here it is Jew proceeds : I conclude therefore, that Abraham was jus to be taken as implying the pardon of sin; receiving a pertified by works, or by his obedience to this law of circum son into the fuvour of God. See these different acceptations cision; and, consequently, he has cause for glorying, x00 cited in the note on chap. i. ver. 17. and particularly under


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